How does the Palace Palace Ceramic Museum “get new”: more than a thousand exhibits, a ceramic history

Surging News reporter Gao Dan

On May 1st, the latest reform of the Palace Museum Ceramics Museum was open to the public. The “Ceramics Museum” of the Palace Museum was founded in 1952. It was originally located in Cining Palace District. After several changes and migration. Today, after more than two years of preparation, the latest “Ceramics Museum” has settled in Wuying Hall, which has been dedicated to the wonderful exhibition many times. The surging news reporter saw at the scene that the biggest feature of the new ceramic museum was the increase in the number of exhibits, which increased from more than 400 original ceramic museums to more than 1,000 pieces. The new Stone Age is on the exhibits, so far in modern times.

exhibition site

The New Ceramics Museum is based on the main hall of the Wuying Hall, the Gonggang and the Grand Hall of the Hall of the Palace of the Palace Museum as the main exhibition hall. According to the sequence of the times, the development process of Chinese ceramics from the Neolithic era to the Republic of China is displayed (ie, the exhibition of the history) And set up independent showcases to highlight the large -scale exhibits such as “various glaze bottle”. There is a “exhibition exhibition” space at the entrance of the main hall of Wuying Hall. The appearance adopts the ancient architectural elements of the Forbidden City, and the exhibits are replaced from time to time (the first phase will be displayed in seven pieces of Qianlong Dynasty Jingde Town Royal Kiln hollowed out, turning the neck bottle, turning the heart, Bottle, etc.). The east of Wuying Hall and the West Palace exhibited six themes of the Qing Dynasty court weddings, sacrifices, meals, furnishings and rewards, Wanshou, and religious porcelain. The Yudang Hall in the northwest of the courtyard specifically shows the Palace Museum’s Tibetan porcelain.

The pink hollow flower pattern gourd -type rotary bottle displayed by the main hall “Exhibition”

It is understood that the ceramics collections of the Palace Museum include more than 360,000 precious cultural relics, thousands of general cultural relics with thousands of pieces of device, more than 10,000 porcelain pieces of the Ming and Qing dynasties, and more than 300 people from all over the country. The representative ancient ceramic kiln site collected more than 70,000 ancient ceramic residual slices and kiln furniture specimens. In the era of ceramic cultural relics, the Neolithic Age has been modern.

The biggest feature of the latest open ceramic museum is the increase in the number of exhibits, from more than 400 pieces of the original ceramic museum to more than 1,000 pieces, and one -third of the total number of first -class products. More than a thousand pieces of porcelain are densely covered in the exhibition hall according to the order of the times. The development level of ceramic skills in each era and the latest features presenting the exhibition cards are hung on the back wall in the form of the exhibition card. The representative and shape -sized porcelain is displayed before, and the information density is very high. It has been separated from the re -exhibition and intention of the exhibition space to show the exhibition space. A ceramic education class: Visitors walked through the exhibition frame according to the times, read the exhibition card of Ge Kiln, and leaned over to see, it was more than a dozen most representative Ge Kiln porcelain; read “glaze red” In front of it, there is a set of glaze in the glazed red porcelain. The exhibition with an orderly and “knowledge preach” meaning is very good.

Red and blue glaze in the glaze, red and white glaze red exhibition frame


The history of the ceramic museum is the exhibition hall of Wuying Hall. There are ten themes in this exhibition hall, namely “tracking traceability -the new stone artifact pottery”, “porcelain garden prelude -Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han ceramics”, “first show of the celadon -the ceramics of the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin, the Northern and Southern Dynasties” ” South Qingbei Bai -Sui, Tang, and Five Generations of Ceramics “” Famous Kiln Renewal -Liaoning, Song, Xixia, Golden Ceramics “,” Porcelain Capital Foundation -Yuan Dynasty Ceramics “,” Prosperity and Prosperity — “” Fresh and elegant -the end of the Ming and early Qing Dynasty, Jingdezhen kiln porcelain “,” climbing the peak -the Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong dynasty Jingdezhen kiln and local kiln ceramics “” Yuhui shining -in the late Qing Dynasty, Porcelain of the Republic of China “, a total of 800 exhibitions The remaining part.

During the exhibition, the earliest time was about 8,000 years ago, about 8,000 years ago.

Color pottery petal pattern bowl (Dawenkou culture in the Neolithic Age)


Color pottery water ripple bowl (Shijiayao culture in the Neolithic era)

The second theme “Porcelain Garden Preface” shows the ceramics of Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin and Han Dynasty. During the summer, business, and week, people’s main daily life utensils were still pottery. In addition to the large amount of burning gray pottery, the Shang Dynasty also fired exquisite carved white pottery and printed hard pottery. About the summer and business, the primitive porcelain appeared, laying the foundation for the invention of mature porcelain later.


During the Warring States Period, ceramic production was more professional, and printed harden ceramics and original porcelain developed universal development in the south. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses discovered by the Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang fully reflect the superb pottery level and superb sculpture skills of the Qin Dynasty. Primitive porcelain appeared in the early summer of summer, tires with porcelain soil, and applied a layer of transparent plant -gray gray glaze or lime glaze, and the kiln was cooked with a temperature above 1200 ° C. The tire quality is hard. The surface of the device is bright, but compared with mature porcelain, it still has a certain primitive in terms of water absorption, mechanical strength, and firing temperature, so it is called “primitive porcelain”.

Primitive porcelain green glaze carved cloud lightning pattern (Warring States)

Primitive porcelain green glaze engraved phoenix bird pattern double tank (Western Han 6)


During the Western Han Dynasty, the low -temperature lead glazed pottery invented by northern my country laid the foundation for the development of low -temperature glaze. During the Eastern Han Dynasty, the batches of mature porcelain was an important milestone in the history of the development of ceramics in China and the world.


The painted pottery refers to the pottery that is no longer baked in the kiln on the fired pottery with natural mineral paint on the pottery. As early as some sites in the Neolithic era, it was found that the Warring States Period, Qin, and Han Dynasty flourished. Generally on gray pottery, most of the shapes are respectable, pot, tripod, warehouse, figurine and other bright wares. At the same time, the lacquerware is more common with cloud gas, vortex, dragon and phoenix, “four spirit” patterns. Low -temperature lead glazed pottery is also a funeral light device. The earliest appeared in the Guanzhong area of ​​Shaanxi during the Western Han Dynasty, and it prevailed throughout the country during the Eastern Han Dynasty. The shape of the lacquer wares and bronze in the same period is refreshing.

Painted gray pottery banded dragon and phoenix pattern with double pots (Western Han)

Painted gray pottery to engrav the dragon and phoenix pattern with double pot (partial)


Painted gray pottery cloud gas pattern shop head (Western Han)


East Han sauce yellow glaze pottery dog


The third theme is the Ceramics of the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties.


The primitive porcelain that appeared during the summer and business, after the development of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the Spring and Autumn Period, the Warring States Period, and the Western Han Dynasty, the Eastern Han Dynasty has generally evolved to a mature porcelain that meets modern standards. The Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasty, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties lasted for more than 360 years. The development of ceramic production was rapid, mainly manifested in the significant improvement of southern porcelain -making technology, and the production areas and scale continued to expand. Site distribution.

Porcelain varieties are mainly celadon, and there are a small amount of black porcelain. The shape of the utensils is the main characteristics of daily life and burial disks, bowls, crickets, washing, washing, pots, cans, candlesticks, tigers, saliva, smoked furnaces, barn, characters, animal figurines, etc., and their products have their own local characteristics.

Wuyue Kiln green glaze -shaped pot Zhu Ran tomb unearthed from the Three Kingdoms

Blue glaze sheep -shaped candlestick

Blue glaze poke the seal of the circle tattoo people riding the evil candlestick


The following one of the Lotus Six Lotus Zun of the Green Glazed Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastics is one of the four lotus dresses unearthed from Fengshi and Zu’s tombs in the northern Jing County in 1948. Its shape is tall and majestic. It integrates a variety of decorative techniques such as plastic stickers, mold printing, and carving, and has exquisite decoration. The decorative themes such as lotus petals, Tuanhua, and Feitian are in line with the historical background of Buddhist culture during the Northern and Southern Dynasties. The results of the chemical analysis of this kind of celadon’s chemical analysis show that the chemical composition of their tires and glazes is different from the southern celadon and has a special point in the northern celadon. The green glaze lotus is the outstanding representative of the northern celadon in the Northern Dynasties.

Northern Dynasties Blue Glaze Plastic Plastic Plastic Dragon Pattern Six Series Lotus Zun

The fourth theme shows the porcelain of Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties.

After the Sui Dynasty ceramics production was processed, both in terms of shape or decoration, they all showed distinctive characteristics of the times. Four -series plate bottles, dual -connected bottles, four -series cans, high -footed plates, fish basket type cans, all of which are typical utensils in the Sui Dynasty porcelain. The pattern belongs to the representative decoration on the porcelain of the Sui Dynasty. The porcelain of the Sui Dynasty is generally thicker, and the glaze cannot be applied to the end.

Boshan Furnace (Sui Dynasty)


Shouzhou Kiln green glaze engraved lotus petal pattern four -series plate (Sui Dynasty)

The Tang Dynasty was a period of flourishing the production of Chinese pottery light. Porcelain kiln was spread all over the country. The shape of the utensils was full of style and rich decoration. At that time, the famous porcelain kiln mentioned by Lu Yu’s “Tea Sutra” included Yuezhou Fu, Jingzhou Kiln, Luzhou Passenger, and Communist Party. State kiln, Shouzhou kiln, Hongzhou kiln, Xingzhou guest, etc. The popularity of tea drinking customs and the prevalence of drinking atmosphere further stimulated the development of the porcelain industry. Ceramics has become an indispensable item for people’s daily diet, furnishings and burials.


Among them, the prominent people include the “jade -like ice” Yue kiln celadon and the “silver -like snow” Xing kiln white porcelain. Tang Dynasty porcelain production generally formed the regional characteristics of “South Green and North White”, that is, the south is mainly celadon and the north is mainly white por Xing kiln with white porcelain.


The following is very important for Yue Kiln’s secret color porcelain. It found in the two -bedroom road connecting the two -bedroom palace in Famen Temple. The experts are the same as the octagonal net bottle type burned by Yue Kiln. Produced in Yue Kiln.


Yue Kiln secret color porcelain octopus net bottle

In addition to the mysterious mysterious porcelain, the most known in the Tang Dynasty porcelain is “Tang Sancai”. “Tang Sancai” is mainly discovered in the tombs of Henan and Shaanxi, mostly funerals, with a variety of shapes, gorgeous glazes, and high artistic value. The “Tang Sancai” glaze is used as the main melting agent with lead oxide, and the oxides of metal such as copper, iron, diamond, manganese are used as the main color. First, the carcass into the kiln was burned by about 100-1100c, and then entered the kiln to burn at about 800 ~ 900 ° C. When the burning of the glazed layer is melted, the glaze of green, blue, yellow, brown, white, and black blends with each other, so that the glazed surface is mottled and tens of thousands of visual effects.


The shape of “Tang Sancai” mainly includes plates, bowls, cups, lights, pillows, cans and characters, animal war figurines, etc. In particular, horses, camels, civil servants, warriors, kings, samurai, Hu people, ladies, town beasts and other figurines. The proportion of the shape is accurate and vivid and vivid.

Sancai lady


Three -color king figurines

Three -color ride hump figurine

Three -color diamond fancy three -footed plate

In the Tang Dynasty, underglaze porcelain also began to be fired in large quantities. It was the most famous with Changsha Kiln and large output.

Changsha Kiln Moon White Glaze Graphic Green Linds Form Founded Pillow

The distinctive flower glaze system of the Tang Dynasty refers to a decorative glaze on the bottom glaze on the bottom glaze on black glazes, yellow glaze, sky blue glaze, or tea leaf glaze to decorate the moon white glaze or sky blue glaze. After the completion, the glaze color is infiltrated, and the color changes are unpredictable. The Tang Dynasty literature was called “flower porcelain”, which was an important invention of ceramic craftsmen in the northern Tang Dynasty. Its producing areas include Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shaanxi. Among them, there are the largest number of plugs in firing porcelain in Henan and the largest output.

Yaozhou Kiln flower porcelain waist drum

Entering the Song Dynasty is also the peak of my country’s porcelain -making industry.

During the period of Liao, Song, Xixia, and Golden, the ceramic industry flourished, and the famous kiln spread all over the world. There was an unprecedented prosperity in the history of ceramic. On the basis of the development of Min Kiln, the court also set up kiln in the north and south to specialize in firing porcelain, Ru kiln, Guanyao, Ge Kiln, Dingyao, Junyao, Yaozhou Kiln, Yue Kiln, Longquan Kiln The porcelains burned by famous kiln in Jingdezhen kiln, Jizhou kiln, and kiln were highly respected by future generations.

The five famous kiln porcelain in the Song Dynasty was the most exciting in the exhibition. The “Ru Kiln”, which is generally referred to, is a kiln yard specially burned porcelain for the court during the Song Huizong period. Its site is in Pingdingshan City, Henan Province. Ru Kiln is extremely particular about the celadon burned by the court. The fetus is fragrant, the glaze is light blue, and the glaze has fine shattered patterns, commonly known as “ice cracks”. The shape of the utensils is regular.


Because of the use of “wrapped feet”, the outsole of the utensil has a small nail mark. Commonly known as “Sesame Earn”. Most utensils have no decoration, and very few have schedules or printing ornaments. The glaze color has changed with the shades of shades with the turning of the shape lines, which is quite artistic.


Ru kiln light sky green glaze three -foot bottle -type furnace support


Ru Kiln Light Blue Glaze Disk


According to the Southern Song Dynasty documents, the court of the Song Dynasty had set up three official kiln near the capital, namely the “Northern Song Dynasty Kiln” and the Southern Song Dynasty in the Northern Song Dynasty in Huizong Xuanhe, Zhenghe during the period of Zhenghe (now Kaifeng City, Henan Province) (now Kaifeng City, Henan Province). The set “Xiu inner Division Kiln” (also known as “inner kiln”) and “inner kiln”) and “Xiaguan Kiln”. From the perspective of the specimen of porcelains unearthed from the handyage and kiln site, the shape of the porcelain of the official kiln in the Song Dynasty is mostly bottles, respect, pots, furnaces, quantums, flower pots, cups, washing, bowls, plates, cups, etc.; Generally, it is iron black or black gray. The glaze layer is thick. The glazed surface is often large.

There is a Ru kiln aquarium on the Bailu Ge in the Ledu map of the concubine.


Guanyao powder green glaze washing


Guanyao powder green glaze string bottle


The Ge Kiln, which has not found the kiln site in the Song Dynasty, is a handed down Geya Kiln ash -green glaze chrysanthemum plate

Dingyao white glaze child pillow

Jun Kiln porcelain is famous for its glaze decoration. It mainly includes sky blue glaze, moon white glaze, sky blue glaze plus purple red spots, kiln -changing glaze. Among them, the most popular is the magnificent copper red kiln. This kind of glaze is applied to copper red glaze on the blue glaze. Because of the mixed color metal oxides in the copper red glaze, the glaze color changes after the firing, the colors are gorgeous, red, blue, moon white, gray purple and other colors are reflected. There is no charm.


Jun Kiln porcelain can be divided into two categories: furnishings and daily use, the so -called “Guan Jun” and “Min Jun”. The shape of the “Guanjun” porcelain is mainly out of the halberd, flower pots, flower pots, etc., and the number of Chinese characters in the outsole of the utensils. From “one” to “ten”, it means that each set has 10 models. Research It is found that the larger the number, the smaller the size of the utensil. In the era of “Guan Jun” porcelain, some people also thought that it was not the Northern Song Dynasty, but from the end of the Yuan Dynasty to the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. The shape of the “Minjun” porcelain mainly includes plates, bowls, cups, cups, washing, bottles, cans, etc., which are generally decorated with sky blue glaze or sky blue glaze purple and red spots.

Jun Kiln Rose Purple Glazing Lingli Fanbasin Too

Longquan kiln porcelain

Jingdezhen kiln green white glaze engraved tangled chrysanthemum pattern double lion pillow

Entering the Yuan Dynasty, the most representative porcelain was blue and white porcelain, which was displayed in the sixth part.


The Jingdezhen kiln porcelain, who is good at innovation, in 1278, the previous year of the Yuan Dynasty unified China, the Yuan Dynasty’s court set up a “floating beam magnetic bureau” in Jingdezhen to burn the palace government. Porcelain -making craftsmen have been concentrated to Jingdezhen, laying a talent foundation for the rapid development of Jingdezhen’s porcelain industry. When adding kaolin to porcelain tires, the porcelain tire in Jingdezhen is changed from a single porcelain stone to the “dual formula” of porcelain stone plus kaolin, becoming a new milestone in the development of Jingdezhen porcelain industry. The Jingdezhen kiln in the Yuan Dynasty successfully burned new varieties such as blue and white, glaze red, white glaze, and blue glaze porcelain.

Three -color ride hump figurine


Blue and white porcelain


Black Flower Pillow Pillow Pillow Pillow Pillow Pillow

The seventh unit shows the prosperous and prosperous Jingdezhen kiln and local kiln ceramics in the Ming Dynasty.

Jingdezhen kiln in the Ming Dynasty is divided into two types: royal kiln and folk kiln. In the second year of Hongwu (1369), the court set up a “pottery factory” in Jingdezhen. The four years of Jianwen was renamed the “Royal Instrument Factory”, which specialized in the firing of porcelain for the court until the thirty -five years of Wanli. These porcelain is mainly used as daily diet, furnishings, sacrifices, rewards, etc., and the development of Royal Kiln has driven the gradually prosperity of the folk kiln. By the late Ming Dynasty, there have been more than 100,000 craftsmen engaged in kiln in Jingdezhen, and they have become the whole country. Porcelain centers and the world of porcelain. Yongle, Xuande, and Chenghua’s blue and white first, Yongle, Yongle and Xuande Dynasty’s bright red glaze, blue cypress, sweet white glazed porcelain, Doucai porcelain of the Chenghua dynasty, the yellow glaze porcelain of the Hongqiang dynasty, Green glaze first, the light eggplant purple glaze porcelain of the Wanli Chao, the colorful porcelain of Jiajing, Longqing, and Wanli Chao, are all famous varieties in the Ming Dynasty porcelain. People respect.


The brown flower pattern throne in the glaze (Ming Hongwu)

The dignified and elegant Yongle blue and white porcelain


Yongle blue and white flower pattern steamed bun heart bowl


Zhengde Blue and White Character Flat Box

The blue and white dragon wearing a pattern with a covered plum bottle unearthed from the Wanli period of Dingling


Mingchenghua Doucai Ling Frameless Folding Branch Lotus Lotus Cover


Mingchenghua Doucai Gao Shi Cup

Mingchenghua Doucai Tuomen Cup


In the Ming Dynasty, colorful is one of the porcelain painting techniques, which can be divided into two categories: blue and white color color and pure glaze. The glaze used on the glaze is common in red, grass green, peacock green, yellow, purple, black color, etc. The color burning temperature is about 800-100 ° C. The single -line flat -coating techniques are used to apply color, so the pattern light has a thick level of light. The Jingdezhen Royal Grand Porcelain in the Ming Dynasty was burned in the early Ming Dynasty. In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, a small amount was also fired, and in the late period of Jiajing. Longqing and Wanli dynasty is quite popular. In particular, Wanli Fancai Porcelain has a variety of shapes and dense patterns, especially highlighting red and green color, which looks gorgeous, commonly known as “Daming”. In the late Ming Dynasty, the popular style and colorful colorful porcelain were closely related to the development of the commodity economy and the prevalence of secular culture at that time.

Ming Wanli colorful character flower picture rectangular box


Ming Wanli colorful hollow cloud and phoenix pattern bottle


Color glaze porcelain is one of the main varieties of royal kiln in Jingde Town in the Ming Dynasty. Regardless of high temperature, medium temperature or low -temperature glaze porcelain, the production is excellent, and the color is pure and beautiful. There are more than 20 species. Among them, Yongle, Xuande North Korea Red, Sacrifice Blue, Sweetly White Glazed Porcelain, Hongzhi porridge yellow glaze porcelain, Zhengde to peacock green glazed porcelain, Jiajing Chao Gua green glaze porcelain, Wanli facing light eggplant purple glaze porcelain and other people praise. In particular, the bright red, sacrifice, and sweet white glaze porcelain of Yongle and Xuande Dynasty were hailed as the “three famous products” in the color glaze porcelain at that time, which had a far -reaching impact on the development of color glaze porcelain.


White glaze plastic sticker fresh red 贴 贴 白 bottle

Ming Chongzhen Blue and White Character Story Tag Bottle

The eighth and ninth units of the exhibition are the porcelain of the Qing Dynasty, including the most watched porcelain mother.


As the first show of the opening, the first phase of the “Exhibition in the Exhibition” will be displayed for the first time to display seven pieces of hollow packet bottle, rotating neck bottle, and rotating bottle of the royal kiln of Jingdezhen during the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. Jingdezhen Royal Kiln Factory reached the pinnacle of production technology in the Qianlong Dynasty. The skillful porcelain -making process creates a variety of instruments and rigorous decorations. This type of bottle has an inner biliary and a hollow bottle. Some necks have necks. Or the inner bilots can be rotated by 360 degrees. The decorative pattern on the inner bottle can be seen through the hollow of the outer bottle, which makes the production very difficult, which can be described as extremely clever. China’s first historical archives collected Qianlong’s eight years of April 21 “Internal Affairs Guan Wairo Management Jiujiang Customs” Tang Ying (1682 ~ 1756) Music: “After starting from the beginning of March, the slave is in the factory In addition to making all kinds of brocades and four groups of landscape bowls, cups, plates, and six square green dragon vases, the slaves have newly planned to be cooked in the exquisite, Jiaotai and other bottles, and they are willing to send Beijing. Newly intended all kinds of all kinds of slaves, created by themselves, they are afraid of unintentional, and the work materials are not too expensive, so they do not dare to build more. Rong cuisine new samples are presented. “From this we can see that this type of bottle is a new variety of porcelain developed by the Governor Tang Ying in the eighth year of Qianlong (1743).


During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, Jingdezhen Royal Kiln porcelain bottle

During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, Jingdezhen Royal Kiln porcelain bottle (partial)

There is still a division of royal kiln and folk kiln in Jingdezhen kiln in the Qing Dynasty. The rulers of the Qing Dynasty eliminated some of the disadvantages of the Ming Dynasty in the manual industry, abolished the compilation of the Ming Dynasty Royal Instrument Factory, and customized the “official burning” in the late Ming Dynasty. The system has stimulated the competition of officials and the people, and promoted the further development of the private porcelain industry.


According to the literature, the Royal Kiln of Jingde Town in the Qing Dynasty was renamed the “Royal Kiln Factory”. With the arrival of the three days of the three dynasties of Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong, the ceramic industry in Jingdezhen also reached its heyday. In the thirteenth year of Yongzheng, Tang Ying’s “Tao Cheng Chronicle” was listed at the time of antique and innovative porcelain as many as 57 varieties.

Qing Kangxi Blue and White Blue and Blind Flower Picture Questions Cup

Qing Yongzheng blue and white glaze, red pine bamboo plum map bamboo leaves Tibetan poetry plum bottle

Qing Kangxi blue and white colorful character map bowl

Qing Kangxi Colorful December Flower Picture Questions Cup

Editor in charge: Lu Sijia

School pair: Zhang Liangliang

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