Wenyuan Hanmo -The essays in ancient calligraphy and painting

Shi Zhaozhao

The ancients often called the study in the study room, and the furnishings were elegant. Literary houses are supplied to the writing tools of literati, and in the past millennial circulation, the study of the aesthetic interest in literati is gradually formed. These “Shangyi” images and expressions are very small in the torrent of history, but the “record” function of painting enables us today to glimpse the elegant style of ancient literary rooms.

In the early Chinese civilization, most of the artifacts used to record life. When the drawing of the picture came into being, painting and books have become the carrier and logo of civilization. In addition to books and fabrics, the emergence of knives and pens is also promoted to the development of the text to the text. The legendary brush was invented by Meng Tian in the Warring States Period, but from the marks of writing, the writing brushes can be written on the oracle bones during the Yin Shang period. As the representative of early pigments, ink and cinnabar are taken from natural. There are ink books in the Oracle Bone. Although less unearthed, it also proves the application of ink at that time. The Han Tomb of Wuwei Music in Gansu was accompanied by a brush and ink pill. The ink pill ink is dark and translucent, and the ink is dark and bright. From “engraving in bone armor” to “book in bamboo”, the application of pen and ink and the development of text have leaps qualitatively during the Shang and Zhou dynasties.

The emergence of paper was earlier than the legendary Cai Lun paper in the Eastern Han Dynasty. In 1957, the Qiaqiao paper unearthed in Xi’an was the paper relic of the Western Han Dynasty. It was the earliest plant fiber raw material paper in my country. The paper is rough and the surface is not smooth. Although it is not easy to write text, it has pushed forward “Cai Hou Paper” for a century.

(Han) Mo Wan Gansu Wuwei Music Music Tomb unearthed from the Gansu Provincial Museum Collection


The 发展 is born based on the development of ink. It is finely grinded and removed the synthetic ink to remove impurities in order to express the ink and ink of writing text. According to the “Xijing Miscellaneous Records” test, the Han Dynasty has appeared until the Han Dynasty. After the improvement of the technique of the production and the needs of the literati after the Sui and Tang dynasties, the 砚 is not just a tool for grinding ink pills. Best. During the Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties, it was a transition period of Chinese culture influenced by the Western style. The unruly talked about the southern dynasty literati collided with the nomadic nomadic people’s border style, making the cultural types of this period diverse and prosperous. The life drawings of the tomb owner of the 13th tomb of Turpan Astana, Xinjiang, are painted by the earliest existing paper painting in my country in China. It is spliced ​​from six pieces of paper with similar sizes. The paper is thick and yellow. The picture is expanded horizontally, and the map of the tomb, the rest of the tomb, the kitchen map. The color in the painting is bright and strong, and the strokes have distinguished the center and the side front. It can be seen that the brush head should have a long pen at this time.


(Eastern Jin) Lu Ji Pingzhi Post (local) Paper ink pen Chronicle 23.7 cm horizontal 20.6 cm Palace Museum Collection

Compared with the scarcity of paper painting materials, the famous calligraphy and famous artists in the Jin and Tang dynasties are the most brilliant chapters in the history of Chinese calligraphy. Paper instead of silk is used for writing, which is generally derived from the Wei and Jin period. Jin Luji “Pingcheat Post” is the earliest celebrity book of celebrities in my country, known as “Mohuang”. “Pingfu Post” Every nine lines, greeting friends with Lu Ji. The full range of hemp paper is the ground. Although some handwriting is lost due to paper injury, it can be seen that the hard essence of Jin Tang paper. Among them, Mo Shujie was between Zhang Cao and Jincao. The font still had the intention, but it was not as clear as Lishu waves. It was written in a hard core pen in the left and right. The masterpiece during the evolution of grass.

(Jin) Wang Xing Boyuan Post (local) Paper ink pen Chronicle 25.1 cm horizontal 17.2 cm Palace Museum Collection

Wang Yan’s “Bo Yuan Tie” and the previous “Pingchen Post” are the only two of the Jin Dynasty celebrities calligraphy today. “Book Saint” Wang Xizhi did not have a true handed down. The Wang family is good at books. The nephew Wang Yan has this short note. The Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty also cherished this post, mounting on the side of the paper and drawing wood and stone maps to cherish it. The side paper is the famous paper of Wei and Jin. Jin Wangjia’s “Picking the League of Remarks · Jin Times”: “The side of the side is Wanfan. Its reason and horizontal oblique side, because of the name. “It can be seen that Wei Jin’s famous paper did have a lot of assistance to the appearance of calligraphy at that time.


During the Jin and Tang dynasties, with the development of the furniture from the low sitting to the bed and the bench, the original writing method also continued to be updated with the changes of the sitting gear. The Eastern Jin Dynasty “The Map of the Female History”, which is now in the British Museum, is the most loyal copy of Gu Kaizhi’s handed down painting. Although this work is identified as the Tang Dynasty copy, the painting still loyally records various famous images in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. “Female History” is a article written by Zhang Hua, Zhang Hua, who has been written by the concubine of the past. He satirizes the authority of Emperor Emperor Jiajia, and educates the famous “Bitter Chen Zhen, Zhuang Yan’s Police World”. Two -tailed women’s history is written in hand rolls, which is showing the habit of writing rolling writing at this time.

Yang Zihua’s “Book of Beiqi School” in the Boston Museum of Art in the United States presents a northern painting style different from Gu Kaizhi’s northern painting. Although this work is Song Yong, it still maintains the original appearance. Beiqi painter Yang Zihua was the famous figure, car and horse painter at the time. The horses were vividly described in the pen. They had caused the viewer to have an illusion of hearing the horsepower at night. When the northern Qi Zhan Gao Zhan was reigned (561-565 AD), he served as General Naoge and Waiwai Sanqi, and served the court. He had to paint with outsiders. The character he painted was plump and round, and the healthy body of Hu Feng was different from Gu Kaizhi’s “smooth and clear”. The painting of this work is the seventh year of the Northern Qi Tianbao (556 AD), the Emperor Xuan Emperor Gao Yanghong Fan Xun, and other eleven people responsible for the history of the “Five Classics” collected by the country. In the picture, there is a clear piercing Yongzheng on the Hu bed. “Ritual and King System” records: “The university is in the suburbs, the emperor is said to be pierced, and the princes are said to be a palace.” The Eastern Han Dynasty Cai Yan’s “Mingtang Dan Ling theory” contains: “Take the water on all sides of the water, the garden is like a puppet, and the later generations are famous.” , Such as Pianyong’s water, hence the name “Pian Yongzheng”. In the early days, three or four feet were popular, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties evolved into the beads and puppets with five to full. In the Sui and Tang dynasties, the round and many feet were developed.


Eastern Jin Dynasty Wang Xizhi’s “Fast Snow In the Snow” Post “


In the “Sanxi”, in addition to “Bo Yuan Tie”, Wang Xizhi’s “Fast Snow in the Snow” is also a masterpiece. This post was written by Wang Xizhi to the shortness of “Shanyin Zhanghou” after the snow. Although he is a Tang Dynasty, he faithfully retains Wang Xizhi’s work because of the use of “shadow -sharing” techniques. “Shadow Tuo” was originally extended with double hooks of hard yellow paper in the Tang Dynasty. Hard yellow paper was dyed with white paper to drive insects, and then immersed in wax and beating. The texture was transparent and smooth. The details of the handwriting are refined by writing, forming a handwriting consistent with the original. In the Song Dynasty Zhao Xizheng’s “Dongtian Qing Lu”: “The hard yellow paper Tang people used the scriptures, dyed with yellow crickets, and took their puppets. In this world, all the two kings of the second king may use the hard yellow paper, all of which are imitated by the Tang people, not true.” “Shadow Tuo “In addition to the many outsiders of Wang Xizhi, it is represented by the Liaoning Provincial Museum” Long Live Tongtian Tie “(Wang’s Book Han Post). In this book, in addition to filling the original pen and ink, it is also the first -hand information to study the appearance of the Wang family with the original defect of insect erosion.

(Tang) Yu Shou Luo Shu’s legend map Gansu Dunhuang Tibetan Sutra unearthed [English] British Museum Collection


In addition to the calligraphy of the Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty paintings also saw the utensils of study. The “Legend of Luo Shuo Shu” was unearthed in the Dunhuang Tibetan Scriptures. According to legend, before the text was invented, Fuxi had a Taoism in the world and witnessed the inspiration of the “Longma” to bear the river map and obtain the yin and yang, four elephants, and gossip. This painting is a remnant, and Yu Yinluo Duan Difu. Fuxi is wearing a crown in the painting, holding a pen and roll. posture.

In addition to standing writing, the Tang Dynasty also appeared in the images of writing in low and low cases.


(Chuan) Tang Wang Weisheng’s graph (partial) Osaka Municipal Art Museum Collection

The “Fusheng Teaching Map” of Tang Wangwei, the Municipal Art Museum of Osaka, is the smallest controversial Wang Wei’s painting. In the picture, Dr. Fu Sheng, who depicts Qin Shihuang’s Burning Book of Confucianism, hid the “Shang Shu” in the wall. By the beginning of the Han Dynasty, Fusheng was over 90 years old. Although Fusheng is old and weak in the painting, he still feels tirelessly in desk. In front of the bayette, you can see the shelved accompanying puppets and brushes. There is another hand roll and a small tank -shaped drip in front of the sector, and the other side is placed with a hand -packed hand roll. In the painting, it is like a heavenly shape, only the center of the pond is slightly concave, the ink color is dark, and the lower side is supported by the wooden frame. It shows that this 砚 is not too carved, and the beauty of nature is all of them. This volume was hidden in Xuanhe in the Northern Song Dynasty.

In the late Tang Dynasty, as the sitting and several cases gradually increased, the habits and forms of writing became more modern. The Great British Museum’s “Top Ten Kings” is depicted based on the “Ten King Scriptures of the Tibetan Tibetan”. In the painting, the Bodhisattva Bodhisattva was wearing a monk hat, a meditation stick and a tribe with both hands. The good and evil boy and the ten palace Yan king recorded by the master and evil records. The prospects drawn the judge Cui, the monk Daoming, the lion, and the pen, and the prisoner is escorting the crime of watching the killing of animals in front of the mirror in front of the mirror. In the painting of the Ten Hall, the king of Yan was opposite. The table case has been changed to a high -ful square table, and the curtain skirt is decorated. In addition to the book scrolls of the sin of life and death, the table can be seen on the side of the case side. The shape of the 称, also known as the “Dou Dou”, is shaped like a puppet, and is named “Feng Zi” because of the “wind” shape outside the tail. The earliest can be seen in the Tang Dynasty during the Northern and Southern Dynasties.


Five Dynasties Zhou Wenju’s “Map of Liulitang” Volume (partial) Silk color set color

The Five Dynasties are an era inherited from the beginning and after the opening. The regime is divided, and a hundred schools are contending. They have bred a wealth of art genres. Among them, the impact on the art of Northern Song Dynasty is particularly profound. The Southern Tang Dynasty is the most elegant. The emperor is not only a sponsor of art, but also a suitor of art. Zhou Wenjia was one of the more famous figure painters in the Southern Tang Dynasty. When the post -owner Li Yu was reigned (961-975 AD), Ren Hanlin was waiting for it. The characters and Buddhist paintings are fine. “Wenyuan Picture Volume” is a very refined piece in the painting of Zhou Wenji’s painting. This volume is originally the second half of the content of “The Character Picture of Liulitang”. Overview of the Chinese room, the Panasonic was lying on the stone platform, and the tribute to the jaw was thoughtful. The two -person two -person pockets read, and they seem to be a stationery box behind them, which is quite noticeable.


Paper ink to calligraphy, south of Tang Li Tingmo and Chengxintang paper are the most famous. The ink made by Li Chao and Li Ting’s father and son in the Southern Tang Dynasty “abundant muscles and gloss like paint” was mostly made during the Bao Da (AD 943-957). After the Northern Song Dynasty extinguished the Southern and Tang dynasties, Tingmo entered the inner library and became the collection of courts. During the Huizong Xuanhe period (1119-1125 AD), it was even more “easy to get gold. The only “Hanlin Wind Moon ink” in the Taipei Palace Museum is now in the world, with a thin custody, full of broken lines, dark ink as paint, and the top of the golden cursive “Hanlin Wind Moon” on the front. Rare treasure.


(Northern Song) Cai Xiangcheng’s heart hall post paper ink pen is 24.7 cm horizontal 27.1 cm Taipei Palace Museum Collection

In the eight years of Renzong Jiayou in the Northern Song Dynasty (1063 AD), Cai Xiang, one of the four Song family, wrote a short staggered to his friends and entrusted search for the southern Tang Dynasty names -Chengxintang paper. Chengxintang paper was named the royal paper created by the Lord Li Yu of the Southern Tang Dynasty. It was named after being hidden in Chengxintang. Ouyang Xiu, Mei Yaochen, Cai Xiang and others all gave poetry. Cai Xiang’s “Chengxintang Post” paper is meticulous and polished, and it is likely that Cai Xiang used as a sample of paper samples for the believer to search for Chengxintang. At this time, Cai Xiangnian was 52 years old. He used his pen solemnly, the body was correct, and the body was graceful.

The Nantang Painting Academy nourished by Jiazhong Mo can be described as talented. Wang Qihan was the post -owner Li Yu, the Hanlin Patriotic Academy treated, workers, Buddhist Tao, and also good at landscapes, flowers and birds. The “Survey of the Books”, which is now in the Museum of Nanjing University, is a handed down. This volume has the title of the golden book of Huizong Zhaozong Zhao Zhao Zhao Zhao, and there are also inscriptions such as Su Shi, Su Zhe, Wang Yan, and Jin Dynasty Shi Gongyi. Under the huge landscape screen, the scribes were long and widened, leaving their ears, and the side of the book. The case is placed horizontally on the pen and ink, the volume is accumulated, and the brush and ink color of the pond beside the pond are still strong. Behind the bed is full of scrolls, and there is a rare large axis. It can be seen that the scroll calligraphy and calligraphy mounting at this time is quite large.

(Northern Song Dynasty) Shen Liao Xingshu stopped post paper ink pen, 27.1 centimeters, 36.6 centimeters, Shanghai Museum Collection

In the Song Dynasty, with the development of the inner court literature and art, the literati class scattered in various places gradually entered the communication circle of scholars and Zhumen. Ya Ji is all over, and the ancient literati life of poetry will gradually be accepted by the upper levels of the Song Dynasty, becoming a trend. Shen Liao’s “The Book of the Books”, which is now in the Shanghai Museum, was originally a short question from Shen Liao to his friends. Shen Liao is longer than poetry, especially the calligraphy. This post uses the pen and ancient, and the charm is handsome in the lines. The posts are used to use water patterns, and the paper surface is white and flawless. The handwriting is like floating in the flowing water, which is even more elegant. Su Shi’s “After the Book of Pu Yong Draws” states: “The ancient and modern paintings are painted, and they are all fold and firing. However, its character is special with the printed panel water paper. “The so -called” printed panel water “should be the water pattern of the water pattern used by Shen Liao. Song Qian Kanggong’s “Zhi Qiu Tan” once contained “Paper Paper”, which was originally a precious white paper from Wu Yue (907-978 AD). The so -called “Yan Bo Jian” in the studio may be a special calligraphy and painting paper similar to the water pattern.

Good paper is rare, especially the old Jin and Tang dynasties, and the most common paper. Song Huang Tingjian’s “Trial Post” once: “For the dozens of wonderful songs for the record of Suer, it has not yet. “It can be seen that the writing paper is divided into size at this time, and the use of the use has become the common feature of Xinzha and paper paper.


(Jin) Wang Xing Boyuan Post (local) Paper ink pen Chronicle 25.1 cm horizontal 17.2 cm Palace Museum Collection

With the scholars who enjoyed the ancient and interesting seductive hair, the Song Dynasty also developed. In ancient times, the Taitai, which was used to study ink, also became the elegant and elegant book engraved with literati inscriptions. “The Book of the Emperor” contains: “Cheng Xinxintang paper, Li Tingmo, and Dragon Tail are the crown of the world.” It is said that Su Shi loves Dragon Tail, and has praised poems many times. Huang Tingjian also has the poem “Laoshan Xing”: “Sun Hui Chan Chan Flying Venus, Biyun -colored Qing Duanzhou purple.” It is believed that the famous golden stones in the dragon tail are comparable to the purple states of the shoulder. As a famous Tibetan master, Mi Yan has been passed down (now the Palace of Taipei Palace) in “Zijin Research Post”. It is said that Su Shi had borrowed the beloved Zijin 砚 of Mi Yan. Because of his love, he “told his son into the coffin.” This purple golden original was made of purple stone. Mi Yan’s “Township Stone Post” records “New Zengjin Right Army Township Stone”, and “Baojin British Light Collection” is cloudy: The right army is no different, and the first product in the world is also down. “Zi Jinzheng and Wang Youjun (Wang Xizhi) are merged.

There are various materials such as pottery, porcelain, stone, and wood in the Northern Song Dynasty. Cai Xiang’s “Zhiyan Yan Glore” once said: “The big research is the ruler, the charm is abnormal, the Chinese in the fasting, and it is here.” Song Huizong Zhao Yan’s “The axis of the Cultural Conference” depicts the eighteen bachelor of the Tang Dynasty during the Tang Dynasty, intending to praise the prosperity of the Director of the DPRK, and the Wenzhi victory in the Tang Dynasty. Above the stone platform behind the Luo Luo, it can be seen that the pen and ink are in the water, and there are ancient Ding Xiangzuo.

Song Xue Shao Peng Cursive New Year’s Page Page Palace Museum Collection


Li Tingmo, who was quite precious in the Southern Tang Dynasty, had lost his pass from the time of Song Dynasty. At this time, the best was Zhang Yumo. Cai Xiang once wrote: “The world is the first with Li Ting, Lizhou, and the Yishui Zhang Yu is the second.” Zhang Yu and Sun Chuhou are all famous ink -making masters, and replaced the cigarettes with coal to change the technical change of ink. In the nine years of Song Shenzong Xining (AD 1076), the history of the country of the nation of Wei Gong Su Song, Yuci was “Cheng Yanzheng Two Dragon Dragon ink, Zhang Yuchuan Mo, Chengxintang Paper”, Shenzong said: ” This is less, Yibao Zhi. “It can be seen that Zhang Yumo hidden in the inner court is also precious. The Palace Museum Tibetan Xue Shao Peng’s “Big New Year” is a short stagnation written to the Northern Song Dynasty and painter Zhao Lingzheng. Both Xue and Zhao were all famous collectors at the time. If the name is ink, if the authenticity is willing to exchange the “Alien Book” from the Xue’s “Alien Hot Post”, it also shows that Zhang Mo is the expensive at the time.

Northern Song Dynasty Miho Book Coral Post Page Palace Museum Tibetan

The pen frame, also known as the pen, and the pen, originally used the tool to prevent the brush in the process of preventing the pens from scattered. In the Late Tang Luo Yin’s “History of Yong”, there is the words “Xu Ling’s Writing Coral”. By the Song Dynasty, it was more common in the form of corals. Writing a coral branch in the letter, the song is natural, and it is natural. Ming Duyu’s “Fusheng Teaching Map” Professor Fu Sheng’s story of the 28th story of “Shangshu”, in the painting, was wrong in the painting. Bishan is also used as research mountains. It can also be used separately in addition to combination with coral pens. Lu Yinglong’s “Leisure Window Including Different Books” in Song Dynasty called its “Far Peak Line Raiders”. Cangxuetang Research Mountain. In the Yuan and Ming dynasties, Yanshan was not only a practical pen frame, but also one of the furnishings of the landscape of the landscape, and it became a unique scenery of the case. Gao Yan’s “Yan Xianqing Rejection” reads: “Yu see the Song Ren Lingling Mountain, and the peak heads are like Huang Zijiu’s method. There are large pools in the pool, half an inch of inch, and the foot of the mountain is white. Wave Ran, the first non -manpower is for pseudo, this is true. “In the Ming Wuwei” Wuling Spring Picture Volume “, this type of mountain -shaped pen frame, board and small cans.

(Ming) Du Yan Fusheng Teaching Classics (Local) Silk Set the color vertical 147 cm horizontal 104.5 cm [美] Metropolitan Art Museum Collection


The literati of the Song Dynasty like Yanju, and there are often several times to dispel Xia Tu. The Song Dynasty “Huaiyin Summer Label” at the Palace Museum is a leader. Painting the Chinese people on the screen of the mountains and rivers, sleeping in Yiran, lying on the mountains and mountains. Such a multi -practical device, Turpan Astana No. 206 Tang Tomb was once a civil engineering pen frame, and only the brackets on both sides were not exterior. The left side of the desk case in the painting is another four -legged fish -shaped golden bronze drip. This drip is a fish -shaped, and the four pillars of the lower pillar are like a alien four -foot tripod. Flowing into the air to control the flow of the flowing water at the mouth of the fish. In ancient times, it was precisely out of the water. Only this can ensure that the ink color is strong. Earlier, Tang Wangwei’s “Fusheng’s Teaching Map” volume and “Wuling Spring Map” volumes are more commonly shaped.

(Song) Anonymous Huai Yin Xia Map (Local) Silk Set the color vertical 25 cm horizontal 26 cm Palace Museum Tibetan

The washing was also flourished in the Song Dynasty, and Huang Tingjian’s “To the Gongshanti Pacific Personal Glutter” stated that “I was begging a small pellet and washing the pen next to it.” Pen washing is more common in the famous kiln porcelain in the Song Dynasty, especially the Ru kiln record is the most comprehensive. In order to recording his antiquities collection, Emperor Qianlong ordered the Qing Palace Ruyi Pavilion to draw copper and porcelain in the 52nd year of Qianlong (AD 1787) and the 57th year of Qianlong (1792 AD). “Changse Lattice” and “Streaming Light” are porcelain drawings. The two races of Ru kiln were entered in “Gong Gong Chang Semeter”, one was washed by Song Ru kiln boat -shaped pen. In the “Stream Lattage of Light”, the Song Ru kiln is washed and the Song Ru kiln boat -shaped washing was washed. In contrast to the handed down cultural relics, the Song Ru kiln boat -shaped pen washed in the inner bottom of the “Big Gong Chang Sei Label” “Ruyi Dark Flowers, the bottom of the bottom, and three nails” should be the current British David Foundation Foundation Northern Song Ru kiln celadon oval washing.

Literary houses are supplied to the writing tools of literati, and in the past millennial circulation, the study of the aesthetic interest in literati is gradually formed. These “Shangyi” images and expressions are very small in the torrent of history, but the “record” function of painting enables us today to glimpse the elegant style of ancient literary rooms. For writing and painting services, the essay book has become a symbol of the history of famous things recorded by painting and calligraphy after thousands of years.

(The author of this article is an assistant researcher at the Institute of Archeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The full text was originally published in the 33rd issue of the “Gate of the Great Merchant” of the Beijing Academy of Painting.


Editor in charge: Li Mei

School pair: Luan Meng

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