This article is authorized by the public account “Memory Islands Isles”
In 2011, the German news magazine “Focus” commissioned the famous public opinion survey agency EMNID to conduct a public opinion survey on the monarchy and nobles in Germany. The results show that 9%of the respondents
I hope that Germany will have a British monarchy.
This ratio is 14%among the agents from fourteen to 29 years old.
In the early 21st century, Germany was one of the most stable and prosperous liberal democratic republics in the world. There were quite a few people who had longing for the monarchy or nostalgia, which was a bit surprising. Of course, these people may not be all hard -core monarchists.
However, since the demise of the emperor system in 1918, the trend of German monarchism has existed. The Weimar Republic, which experienced the dancing of the demons, and the Nazi rule of Wanma Qi, and the two -German period of the Nazi rule and the ideology of ideology. This trend has been a flash inhale and has been brutally suppressed, but has always insisted on this or that form. The old man of the former dynasty had died, but the elderly still existed in Germany. The wind and rain they experience can help us understand German history in the 20th century. And the most interesting problem in this period may be:
Why does German monarchism fail? Why can’t the emperor always restore in Germany?
To answer this question, you must go back to the time of the time of William II’s abdication and the collapse of the emperor.
To the Republican
After the October Revolution broke out, after the Bolshevik Party took power in Russia, Lenin and Germany met. In March 1918, the two sides signed the Treaty of Breaster Totovsk, and Russia withdrew from the war with humiliation. Germany was able to transfer a large number of troops from the Eastern Line to the West, hoping to concentrate their strengths to win a victory, forcing the Western allies to meet and obtain a peaceful condition for Germany. This is the actual leader of Germany at this time General Erih Ruden Daofu
“Getting peace through victory”
However, in the spring of 1918, the Germans had a lot of hopes for the Western Line offensive and lost a large area of land (but it was not in the original enemy country, and it had not yet affected the German homeland).
The German reserve team was exhausted and could not fight again.
At the same time, the United States continues to transport new newborn troops to Europe. From a military perspective, Rudden Taoov believes that Germany will defeat. On September 29, Luden Taoist reported to the emperor William II that he could not guarantee that he would continue to maintain the front line for 24 hours and requested the emperor to ask for peace with the country. He also suggested that constitutional amendments, implementing reforms, and transferring regimes to the largest party and social Democratic Party of the parliament at that time (belonging to the mild left, being hostile to rightists such as Rudden Taoist and the emperor). Ludidorf is doing this to protect the people’s attention and protect the reputation of the army.
The legend of “behind a sword” was born. Later German extreme ethnicists and rights propaganda that Germany lost the crime of non -war and was sold out of the country such as the Social Democratic Party. These people with black pots are called
Essence Luden Daoff and the army kept their reputation. This can be said to be one of the biggest scams in history.
The Social Democratic Party is willing to take over the government at the critical moment when the building will be leaning. On October 28, the parliament officially determined the constitutional amendment. However, at this time, Germany was in chaos, and few people noticed that the German politics had changed from the constitutional monarchy to the actual parliamentary country.
The emperor took the initiative to give power to the Parliament of the Democratic Party.
Later, the government asked for peace to the country in accordance with the suggestions of Ruden Daoff.
Social Democratic Party leader Friedrich Ebert
However, after negotiating and hitting the wall with US President Woodro Wilson, Rudden Datov changed his mind and demanded the cancellation of the discussion and let the Germans continue to fight. However, the building will be leaning, there are many mutations within the Germans, and the army has no strength or willingness to continue to fight. Turbish across the country was chaotic.
Various left, middle left, middle and right, and right right various forces dance.
In order to prevent the Russian Bolshevik revolution in Russia, in order to control the “November Revolution”, to meet the requirements of the November of the Nations, it is also to protect the emperor (so as not to become a target of various hostile forces). Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925) requested the emperor to abdicate on November 6.
The last empire Prime Minister Baden’s son Maximilian
The emperor delayed for a few days. He realized that he was too stressful, so he had to give up the identity of the emperor, but he also had fantasies, hoping to keep the seat of King Prussia. Ebert said on November 7: “If the emperor does not abdicate, the social revolution will be inevitable. I don’t want the revolution and I am hated the revolution.” Go to meet the emperor and advise him to abdicate.
However, the situation has developed too fast, exceeding Ebert’s expectations and control scope, and the turmoil broke out in Berlin, and the extreme left launching uprising. In order to control the situation, Maximilian Von Baden (1867-1929), Maximilian Von Baden, the last empire, did not get the emperor himself on the afternoon of November 9th. Give up the right to inherit (many days to get the written confirmation of the emperor and the emperor).
On the same day, Philip Shendman, the leader of the Social Democratic Party, announced the establishment of the Republic, which is the Weimar Republic that we know.
Soon after, the extremely left -wing leader Karl Li Bukneri also announced the establishment of a “free German socialist republic” in Berlin.
The above is the basic timeline of the emperor’s abdication and the annihilation of the emperor. So what did the emperor do during this time? On November 9, when the Maximilian declaration was not learned, the emperor said to the followers, “Children, pick up weapons!” He seemed to fight as a fight, but who fights for? Revolutionary? Social Democratic Party, who sells the Empire? Or does the country? The emperor’s mood must be very complicated.
However, after learning that the Maximilian declaration, the emperor led his followers to escape by train. The next morning, he embarked on the Dutch territory and was gone.
When it comes to the possibility of restoration, you must ask:
Except for the fled, do the emperor have other ways to go?
Most of the rights, including nobles, believe that he originally had three choices that everyone could accept, and he did not choose, but made the fourth and worst decisions. Because of this, the possibility of restoration is greatly reduced.
In the last few days of the emperor’s system, in the small town Spa, the emperor and his officers, diplomats, and servants of the military officers fiercely discussed his three choices. First of all, according to the proposal of Prime Minister Maximilian, the emperor should “promptly” abdication, so that there is a front line of preservation of the monarchy. The Prime Minister’s Dr. Wilhelm Drews (1870-1938) was sent to the emperor. Druce reported to the emperor on November 1 that the Prime Minister and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had abdicated as soon as possible. The emperor refused on the spot and said greatly:
“I want to use a machine gun to give you a reply to you. Even if my own palace is frying, I must maintain order!”
Druus and others begged hard, saying that if the emperor did not abdicate, Berlin may erupt the Bershvik Revolution. The emperor proposed his second choice: “Then I will take a few divisions to march to Berlin in person and hang all the traitors. At that time, see if the masses stand on the emperor and the empire!”
“If necessary, bomb Berlin City.”
Xingdengbao and Ruden Taoist
After 1916, the actual ruler of Germany
If the emperor led his army to return to the country to suppress the revolution, there were many people in the high -level circle. The Chief of Staff of the “Empress Dowager” Group Army, Fedrich von von der school, 1865-1939) is a firm royalist. He firmly believes that at this time, there are still ways to gather some loyal and reliable troops, withdraw the native, march into Berlin, and suppress the revolution. Several generals supported Schurelberg’s idea. Schunberg shed tears and begged the emperor to “step forward, come to us” to fight a civil war. Most of the time of the war was the emperor of the puppets of Xingdengbao and Ruden Taoist. At this time, there was also a chance to get rid of the state of puppets and really do a major event.
So is the emperor who personally led the army to suppress the revolution? At the military situation report on November 8th and 9th, the director of the military demand (actually the first commander of the Army Headquarters) Wilhelm Groner (1867-1939) was very pessimistic about the German state state. Essence Glerner calmly pointed out that at this time the officer’s control of the army was already weak, and he could not restrain and effectively command the soldiers;
The troops are no longer willing to follow the emperor
Therefore, it is impossible to use the army to suppress the revolution. The Chief of Staff of the Army (in fact the Army’s Supreme Commander) Xingdengbao agreed with his analysis. The emperor asked the opinions of the 39th generals and senior officers of the base camp. Most people believed that the army was unreliable.
Earl of Friedrich von De Schronburg
At the same time, the Berlin government continued to call and generate a report to urge the emperor to abdicate, and then Prime Minister Maximilian unilaterally announced that the emperor and the imperial prince had given up the throne. Xingdengbao thought of the French Revolutionary period
The tragedy of Louis XVI escaped, arrested and executed, and the tragic ending of the Russian Tsar family a few months ago
There is no plan to support Schurelberg. He proposed the emperor to flee to the Dutch Kingdom, which was only 50 kilometers away. In the end, the emperor chose this road.
Many nobles believe that the emperor can have another choice, that is: he can die. At the critical moment of floods, the emperor should go to the battlefield in person to launch the final attack to the Xie -Country Army, and died vigorously. In this way, we can defend the prestige of the monarchy, so that the monarchy will hope to survive in Germany, and leave a brilliant symbol for future generations.
General Ludwig von Falkenhanson
According to Glener’s description, he advocated that “the emperor immediately went to the battlefield for death. The emperor’s heroic sacrifice could change the political situation at once. Or even if he was not killed and he was injured, public opinion was very likely to be very likely The transition to the direction of the emperor. Later, some young officers of the Army headquarters accepted my thoughts and expressed their willingness to die with the emperor. “
“… In my opinion, the emperor should go to the battlefield, just like his great ancestor will do in a similar despair”
Essence Glener even made preparations for arranging the emperor’s sacrifice with Major Joachim Von Stülpnagel (1880-1968). They plan to choose a suitable location at the front line and look for volunteers who are willing to accompany the emperor for the last journey, and finally let the emperor lead these dead men to attack the enemy.
There are indeed many people who are willing to die with the emperor generously. The Governor of the Germans in Belgium, Baron Ludwig Freiherr Von Falkenhausen (1844-1936), it is said that he has vowed in front of the emperor: “Please keep your Majesty, we are willing to die!” Senior officers of the Navy Headquarters conceived a more reliable solution:
Let the emperor board a flagship and launch a suicide attack at sea
, Sink to the sea with the warship, so as to avoid the embarrassing situation of the emperor’s death but being captured. However, Gellaner said that he was from Fattenburg and was not suitable to indicate the road to the emperor. This should be the mission of General Prussia. But obviously no one made this suggestion directly to the emperor.
Friedrich von Berg
Not only these fanatic soldiers in the base camp, but also other aspects also advocated that the emperor thanked the world for death. Georg Michaelis, a former Prime Minister Georg Michaelis (1857-1936) as early as October 1918, he advocated that the emperor participated in the “last battle” and “personally pulled his sword to participate in the war.” However, Mi Xia Elis did not dare to say when he saw the emperor for the last time. The last director of Geheimes Zivilkabinett, Friedrich von Berg (1866-1939, later chairman of the German noble association) also said in the memoir, the emperor stayed in the army. It should not be to protect their personal safety; the emperor should go to the front line in person and stay on the front line instead of hiding behind. “”
Life is insignificant, and the only important is honor, monarchy, and motherland.
The Emperor’s former friend Philip O’INErenburg
Even the emperor’s good buddies Philipp Zu Euneburg (1847-1921, fell out of favor due to homosexual scandals), also felt that the emperor missed the last opportunity to recover his face and recover the empire’s decentness: “Since the king of the king The great cause has been disintegrated, then the king can only go to the front line instead of fled to the Netherlands! Only on the front line can maintain the honor of his dynasty. Perhaps through his sacrifice as a soldier, he can consolidate the honor of the dynasty. Or he can stay in Berlin, Lead the troops that are still loyal to try to suppress the rebellion. No matter what Xingdaobao says, there is no other way! “
Gorge Michami Elis
The emperor refused to abdicate in time, did not bravely suppress the revolution, nor did he restore the honor by death, but instead of slipping without resistance. The older nobles believe that the emperor himself has a strong will to fight, but he is surrounded by weak and incompetent conspirators. These people encourage and betray him and trick him to embark on the endless road of escape. And more aristocrats believe that the emperor did this to escape and was a shameful deserter. Originally, in the second half of the second empire, the aristocratic circle (especially the subordinate nobles) had a lot of criticism and dissatisfaction with William II (such as criticizing him to win and colludes the bourgeoisie, especially the Jewish capitalist, and ignored the interests of the nobles).
And the prestige of the deserter emperor plummeted.
Emperor Banner of William II
There is a motto: God is with us
And not just as deserters, the emperor also said. He has repeatedly promised different people to stay with the army without throwing off officers and soldiers, even if he is dead. The waiter Sigurd Von Ilsemann (1884-1952) recalled that the emperor once said, “As long as there are still a few people around me, I will fight with them to fight with them to the end to the end , Even if we all fight! I am not afraid of death! I want to stay here! “Earl Schunberg had such a memory:” I said to His Majesty: ‘Please lead the army in person … Together. ‘Her Majesty said goodbye to me:’ I will be with the army! ‘I kissed his dear and strong hand, and I never saw him again since then. “
Such sensational scenes are actually empty. The emperor also promised his eldest son: “I want to stay here and be loyal to me!” Jun Wuyou said, but the emperor vowed easily. The aristocratic criticism and disdain of William II reached a peak.
Herman Elharrt during the Capau coup in 1920
The famous right -wing and quasi -military organization leader Hermann Ehrhardt (or 1881-1971), the right -wing and quasi -military organization leader during the Weimar Republic, can represent the position of a considerable number of young officers and nobles. He later married a Miss Marquis and was counted into the aristocratic circle. He said that the emperor and the emperor had two choices in November 1918, either
“Leading a few guards to march into Berlin, completely shattering the red bandits”
“Hold the sword in hand, and the battle died on the steps leading to your throne.”
In 1919, there were rumors that the contract country intends to ask Germany to hand over the emperor and use it as a war criminal trial. Elhart arranged plans with other old officers, intending to attack the emperor’s exile place and rescue him. At this time he had a loyalty to the emperor. By 1926, he publicly condemned the emperor to abandon Germany at the critical moment and betrayed the nobles and the people. There is also a group of young aristocratic officers who also publicly stated: “From then on, we should strictly distinguish between the monarchy and a specific monarch, because the monarch betrayed the monarchy.”
1918 German Empire Relief
The historian Stephen Marinnovsky excavated a large number of private communications, diaries and memoirs of nobles in this period, and found that emotional expression similar to above was everywhere.
This has caused a heavy blow to the monarchic thoughts.
Louis Müldner Von Mülnheim (1876-1945) as early as 1919, Louis Meldner, the emperor of the Royal Prince, asserted that the proud “monarchy” fell to such a shameful ending. This pair of monarchism Thoughts caused “terrible damage.” Wilhelm Von Oppen-Tornow, a noble landlord and cavalry officer, wrote in the 1925 diary: “All German monarchs abandon the throne without the battle. ! … the first emperor who ran the first way was the greatest! “
The last Empress William
Since William II’s image is difficult to repair, what is the image of his eldest son Emperor William? If he can preserve the body, is there still hope for the Hoheneson family and monarchy?
In 1922, Emperor William wrote this memoir, depicting his performance in the last years of the emperor’s system, and he was so brave. However, the memoirs were actually written by multiple writers for him. Around November 9, 1918, the performance of William Empress was not stronger than the father emperor and even worse. There are rumors that in the days when the country is in danger, he has not done anything, but is playing with several French prostitutes. Everyone knows that the imperial prince’s obscenity is in the aristocratic circle.
After a few years of Schurelberg, there is still a hope for the imperial prince, hoping that the hardships of the hard years will make the Emperor Conservation mature and grow into a “truly serious person”. However, Schurelberg is gradually disappointed. Later, the most famous point of the Emperor’s prince is that he wrote this book,
And none of this book was written by himself.
This makes me feel disgusting. “He also said,” If German intellectuals know the true face of the Royal Prince, it will cause a huge rebound. The role of the imperial prince is finished. “Sterener also had the same concerns:” Is Germany a monarch or the Republic? If not, the dream of the Emperor Huo Hengson is shattered. “
In early December 1918, the domestic German army was withdrawn
The bad performance of the emperor and the imperial prince in 1918 violated the traditional values of the German nobles and shattered the world outlook they was accustomed to. So among the nobles and even the general public,
Monarchism has become very marginal and non -popular.
And even among the a few people who still believe in monarchy for nostalgia, old -fashioned, and hostile democracy, not many people support the restoration of William II.
In principle, these monarchists advocate that Germany should have the monarchy, but no one in the heart is willing to see William II and their sons come back because they feel that they are not worthy. Therefore, Huo Hengsonon monarchy can only be a weak idea, and it is difficult to have practical support, practical goals and feasible causes.
Ewald Von Kleist-Schmenzin (1890-1945), chairman of the chairman of the monarchic organization “HAUPTVEREINS DER KONSERVATIVEN” (1890-1945). Towards
“People in Dai Crown”
To pay tribute, he refused to say the name of William II or the Empress. Deutsche Adelsgenossenschaft (DAG) ‘s decision in 1926 was: “Emperor William II is not a candidate for the monarchy recognized by everyone. We all agree with this. His adult sons are not suitable for . At present, our hopes are on the eldest son of the Empress. “
Ho Heng Sauron monarchism during the Weimar period
Therefore, at least three imperialists of Ho Hengson monarchy: William II, Empress William and Emperor Sun William. During the Weimar Republic, some of the Houhengsonon dynasty had a few old -fashioned old -fashioned organizations, but they could not be climate.
Deutsche Volkspartei and Deutschnationale Volkspartei are monarchist parties. However, they said the monarchy’s words, toasting to the emperor or the dynasty during eating, but there was no real restoration plan, let alone practice.
William II, 1915
On November 9, 1918, the night when the emperor abdicated, the right -wing writer Ernst Pfeiffer (1876-1942) established the “Bund der Aufrechten” in Berlin, and
The purpose of the organization is monarchism and anti -Semitic
By 1919, there were more than 1,000 members. At the first conference, 140 representatives from Prussia attended the meeting. The “Positive League” has a lot of famous politicians, soldiers, and nobles, such as Prince Prussian Prince Etel Fredrich (1883-1942, the second son of William II), Prince Oscar (1888-1958, William II The fifth son of the world), Karl Von Einem (1853-1934, the Army General, former Army Minister), Kuno Graf Von Westarp, 1864 – 1945, Congress) and so on. The son -in -law of President of Xingshangbao, Hans Joachim Von Brockhusen (1869-1928), Hans Joachim Von Brockhusen, the landlord and officer, is the first chairman of the “Positive League”.
In 1922, the “Positive League” held the “Prussian Conference” in Friedrichshain in Berlin, with 3,000 people participated. At this time, there were 60 local branches and about 25,000 members. Of course, these activities attracted the attention of the Republic government. In June of this year, Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau was assassinated by the right -wing.
The Republic government takes this opportunity to investigate and suppress the various right -wing and anti -Republican factions.
Although the “Positive League” was not directly connected with this assassination case, it was also banned. The 26th issue of the group’s semi -monthly “Deer Aufrechte” was published before Ratau’s assassination and was also checked. Several units of the “Positive League” continued to move until it was completely dissolved by the Nazi Party in 1934. In 1945, after the end of the war, the former member of the “Positive League”, Heinrich Freiherr Von Massenbach,? – 1962) found several old partners and some new likes to form A new monarchic association “Tradition Und Leben”.
Duolun Palace is His Majesty’s Heroes in the Netherlands in exile
“Kaisertreue Jugend) is a little -ranging organization in the Weimar period. It was established in 1922.
Visit the old emperor who has lived in exile
And to introduce the new members of the organization to the emperor. In 1934, the “Loyal Emperor Youth League” was banned by the Nazi Party. After the end of World War II, some “loyal emperors” joined the “traditional and life” organization.
A monarchy organization that mainly serves the old emperor himself is “gardening organization”, established in 1924, and dissolved in 1928.
After the end of World War I, the right -wing quasi -military organization “Steel helmet team” (mainly composed of the veterans of World War I) also has the color of monarchism.
It strongly opposes the democratic system and the Republic, but was forced into the charge by the Nazi Party in 1934.
The Third Prime Minister of the Weimar Republic (the office time 1930-1932), and the central party politician Heinrich Brüning (1885-1970) is a controversial figure in German history. Some people say that he is Wei For the final defender of Ma Demon, some people said that he was buried in Weima Democracy. He opposed the Communist Party and the Nazi Party. During his time as Prime Minister, Germany’s domestic politics was extremely turbulent, and he caught up with the Great Depression and his economic recession. His economic policy was unpopular, bringing a lot of hardships to the working class and the middle class. He banned the Communist Party’s quasi -military organization “Red Front Warrior Alliance” and also forbidden the Nazi Party’s charge. What he was most worried about was that President Xingdebao couldn’t live long, and once he died, Hitler, who had a high voice, was likely to become his heir.
The presidential election in 1932
Blunning draws votes for Xingdengbao
According to the memoirs left after Bulunin’s death, in 1932, when the pressure of the Nazis was extremely under great pressure, in order to prevent Hitler from taking power, he had done the last effort to be desperate and attempted to restore the emperor’s system. He intends to let Congress cancel the Presidential election in 1932, extend the term of Xingdengbao, and then announce the restoration of the monarchy. He will be the regent of Xingdengbao, and recommend the emperor of the Emperor’s William. However, the new Ho Hengsorlan dynasty will be a British -style constitutional country, and the real power is in the hands of Congress. Blunning claims to have persuaded most of the major parties (except the Nazi Party, the Communist Party, and some nationalists), so his plan is likely to succeed. However, although Xingdenburg is a monarch, he refuses to support Bulunen because he insists on greeting the old emperor William II to come back to restore. Blunning told him that neither the Social Democratic Party and the international community would accept William II. Xingdenburg was furious and forced Bulu Ning to resign. So the restoration plan could not be left.
After offending the Nazi Party, Bulunning fled to the United Kingdom and later went to the United States. Finally, he was a professor of government management at Harvard University and died in the United States. His memoirs were considered unreliable by historians, and his efforts to restore the imperial system did not evidence, so we don’t know if he had really done this.
The disappointment of the royal family makes the nobles find new leaders
Since the Hoheng Soren monarchism in the Weimar period is not a climate; since the emperor and the emperor are deserted and soft eggs, they are not capable and qualified to continue to lead Germany; since the nobles and rights are only temporarily cooperating with the Republic, the bones are still hostile to the Republic and democracy and democracy in their bones. System, then the question is,
Where should Germany go?
The aristocracy made a lot of thoughts on this issue.
In 1924, Emperor William said: “Only one dictator can pull out the German car from the shit pit.” We don’t know if the dictator said whether the dictator said was himself. But in the eyes of the nobles, he must not be such a hero. The hardcore Ho Hengson British Emperor Schunberg said: “Only one Titan giant can control the current situation. At present, there is no such great man in the left or right.”
Since the lack of new emperors who are worthy of respect, most nobles do not accept the Republic, and the nobles need new leaders, new leaders, new “heads of state”. Borrowing the title of Malinovsky’s masterpiece, this is the transformation of “from the king to the head” for the nobles. This is a significant transformation of a worldview. The aristocracy desires, appeals, and needs a new type of leader. Especially among Prussians, this idea is quite common and representative.
So what kind of person should be the new leader desired by the nobles? There is a ready -made model: Mussolini. Andreas Von Bernestov-Andreas v. Bernstorff-WEDENDORF wrote in his diary:
“Only when there is a dictator, we will be rescued. He will use an iron broom to sweep these international parasites. If we are like Italians, there is a Mosrini!”
His “international parasitic rogue” refers to the enemy in the eyes of the German right (including nobles) during the Weimar period: British and French capitalism, Russian communism, and local social Democratic Party. Of course, there are Jews, because the first three include Too many Jews are at least in the eyes of anti -Semitism.
Mussolini successfully established a new order to integrate the Italian old elite (royal, aristocracy) with the new elite (fascist). For German nobles who are at a loss, such as a sense of confidence in the Republic system, seem to point out the way out of the aristocratic class. Appreciating Mussolini was a common phenomenon among German nobles at that time. Carl Eduard Herzog Von Sachsen-Coburg Und Gotha (1884-1954), even in 1931, was specially applied to the famous right-wing officer and arms dealer Waldma Pabst in 1931. , 1880-1970) Together with the “GesellSchaft Zum Studium des Faschismus”, organize learning classes and lectures to study and study Italian fascism. I hope to move Mussolini’s successful experience to Germany and also Everyone often organizes everyone to investigate in Italy. By 1933, a total of 329 members of the community, more than a quarter of the aristocracy, including the Empress William. This community gathered many rightists together, including Steel Tomber Friez Thrus and Dr. Yarma Shahtt, and many of them later joined the Nazi Party.
The paralysis of the monarchy has made many nobles prepare for psychological preparations to accept a powerful Musrini dictator, even if the dictator is born of grassroots. One of the reasons for Hitler’s welcoming and supporting and supported by Hitler is that he can play the powerful leader role he is unable to play the Hohene Sosen royal family. So, what do Nazis think about this question?
Nazi’s attitude towards monarchism
Hitler seemed to be humble in front of Xingdengbao
March 21, 1933 is the so -called “Potsdam”. Under the careful planning of the Propaganda Minister, Gobelle, the Nazi Party who just came to power on the garrison of Prussia and the second empire’s glorious history in Prussia’s Potsdam.
“In front of King Friedrich’s King”
A grand ritual.
In the words of scholar Herfride Mimi, this scene gave Hitler’s divineness. At this time, although Hitler had become a German Prime Minister, his power was unstable, and the Nazi Party had not yet occupied the absolute majority of the parliament. He also needs to cooperate with the old elites of the National Defense Forces and Prussia, such as President Xingdebao, a person like a monarchy.
Therefore, Hitler was wearing a military uniform, wearing many medals on his chest, and the marshal of Xingdengbao, who was upright, looked humble and respectful. The “Potsdam” ceremony symbolized the Nazi Party, the National Defense Forces, and the old elites of Prussia. The alliance has been maintained to the day when the Army Colonel Shi Taofen Berger went to Hitler’s conference table.
The emblem organized by the “Tradition and Life” is the Crown of the Second Empire
Gobel gigenically plagiarized and borrowed the glorious heritage of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Second Empire. The reason for this day was because the day of 62 years ago, Bismarck announced the establishment of the first Empire Parliament. The garrison church was built by King Friedrich William I (“King of Soldiers”) for the soldiers and was also prepared for himself. There is no cross on the tower of the church, only Prussia’s eagle; there is no portrait of saints in the church, only the military flags of weapons, military numbers and Prussian army regiments. The music performed during the ceremony is commonly used by the Royal and Ho Heng Sauron royal family.
The old emperor did not attend, but left him.
Xingdengbao also raised the marshal kingly and bowed to the emperor’s empty position. The imperial princes, the second son of the imperial (Ettel Fredric), the fourth son of the emperor (August William), and the emperor’s five sons (Oscar) all attended the ceremony and received the review from Xingdengbao and Hitler. Xingdenburg also presented the wreath of the coffin of King Friedrich William I and King Friedrich, and in his speech, he also called on everyone to “recall the old Prussian … May the ancient spirit of this glorious place inspire us today People … “
In this way, Hitler borrowed a selective and pragmatism in the history of the royal family and the dynasty.
However, in “My Struggle”, he clearly expressed his attitude towards the monarch: “They [German ruler, headed by the emperor] fleeing like a bird of shocking, and he was panicked when he saw the red sleeve chapter, and the emperor quickly took the emperor. The halberd was replaced with a walking cane, and the bourgeoisie tie, shaking into a peaceful citizen! … such a knight can only lose the throne, but there is no ability to earn the crown … … When the building started to shake, they were being shaken. Blow away. “This should be closer to Hitler’s true thoughts.
Nazi theorist Lixid Walter Dalle
The Nazi party’s propaganda agencies sometimes use similar claims to attack and discredit old authority. This is a contradiction between the Nazi Party’s position in the nobles. The Nazi Party must borrow the power of the nobles and live with the “Socialist Workers’ Party” and the mass movement. It is hostile to represent the aristocracy of the feudal social hierarchy and advocate the establishment of an insiders in the nation. Equal “national community”.
Richard Walther Darré (1895-1953), a former Nazi theorist, may be the most hostile nobles within the party. He said in 1934:
“These people [exile monarchs] abandoned the people at the most critical moment of the people. Why should we welcome them back?
… There is only one requirement for our farmers to leaders, that is, they love us and lead us well. “Dray even advocated that if the emperor returned, he would send him to the People’s Court of the Nazi Party.
Although the Nazi Party’s criticism of the monarchy and the “timid” of the “cowardly” of the senior nobles, the content is almost the same as that of the major (lower) nobles’ criticism of the monarchy: the escape of William II, which means that he is no longer qualified to be a leader.
Ho Hengshalun’s attitude towards Nazis
If the Nazi attitude towards monarchism is to use and exclude, what is the attitude of the Nazi party?
Among the aristocrats who believe in monarchism, there are many people who have fantasies about the Nazi party. Hitler severely criticized the German monarch who had escaped in “My Struggle”, but it was ambiguous about what the future German national forms were like.
“A question of fundamental significance”
, Need to “move the camera.” Prior to the banning of the monarchy in 1934, although the Nazi Party’s senior officials had the same hostile nobles and monarchy (and Dray lost power), it was still ambiguous. This is enough to attract many aristocrats with monarchy thoughts under the Nazi door.
Some nobles naive believe that the Nazis is also a monarchy. Earl Schunberg said in 1929:
“I think the current national socialist movement is the only way to the monarchy.”
In 1933, Schurel, who had already joined the party, actually said: “Hitler is the key to the monarchy, this is beyond doubt.” In the fall of 1933, August Von Cramon (1861, August Von Cramon (1861 —1940) Promoted a pet from Xingdengbao, saying that January 27, 1934 was the 75th birthday of William II. The best birthday gift for the emperor was to help him regain the throne on that day. Caramun said that Nazi thought and monarchism are consistent. The “head of state” must lead to immortal heads of state, that is, hereditary monarchy, “Hitler itself is a monarchist.” The people around him and his side obviously knew more about political reality than Caramun, and warned Caramon that the timing of restoration was immature.
Some nobles are hostile or disgusted with Nazi, but fantasy uses the power of Nazi to restore the monarchy. In other words, these nobles, like many conservatives of the Weimar Republic, overestimated their ability. I believe that they can use the Nazis for their own use. Family Franz von Ben said Hitler “we hired.”
Many nobles can be split in personality
When writing a letter to the exile old emperor, the “His Majesty’s most pleasing and loyal servant” was settled.
So what is the attitude of the Hohene Sosalon family on the Nazis? For this topic, the author who describes the most detailed monograph is actually the Hou Hengsonlon family. Prince Prince Friedrich William (1939-2015) was the son of the Hohene Sosharen Louis Fedan (1907-1994), the great -grandson of William II. His doctor of history published in 1984 was titled “The Huo Hengsonlun Family and National Socialism”. Everyone can imagine that he has unique research conditions for this topic, after all, a large number of literatures are in his own home. However, historian Marlinsovsky criticized this paper, thinking that it tried the relationship between the Hohene Sosalon family and the Nazis, and deliberately gave several important members of the Hohehoson family (the imperial Conservation William, William II The second wife, Hemin, and the fourth son of the emperor August William during the exile) actively supported the ugliness of the Nazi to avoid or read, and focused on the anti -Nazi side of the Hohene Sauron family. Marinovsky said,
This is the manifestation of the “selective memory” art.
Under the matchmaking of Hemin and others, William II in exile in the Netherlands had some contacts with the Nazis. Herman Golin visited the emperor twice to the Duolun Palace. William II laughed at Green’s clothing and rude dining etiquette, but Marinovsky believed that this was just the high emperor’s contempt of the bourgeoisie, which could not show that the emperor was anti -Nazi. William II passed the full power on behalf of Magnus Vonus von Levetzow (1871-1939, naval generals and police officers) and “court affairs manager” Leopold von (Leopold von Kleist, 1872-1946) remained closely communicating with the Nazi regime. Lavoluo also became Nazi party members and members of parliament under the permission of the emperor. Prior to 1932, the Huo Hengshallen family headed by the emperor had actually clearly clearly seemed to seek cooperation with Nazi as his main strategy. The royal family has fantasies about the Nazis, hoping that with the help of the Nazi help, it was not until this hope that the Hoheneson family drove away from the Nazis. In December 1932, the emperor and Ryovico had to deal with it.
After Hitler came to power, the emperor asked Hitler’s possibility of restoration several times through official representatives. At first, Hitler was vague and said that it was possible to restore the monarchy, but he could only restore the Huo Hengsorlan dynasty and cannot restore the status of other Bangjun; the restoration time is not sure, and you must wait for the war to win. In the future, Hitler’s tone became more and more tough, and he became more and more hostile to monarchism. He said that Germany’s task is to eliminate communism and Jews, and whether it is the monarchy as an institution or the imperial prince of the individual, it is not strong enough to complete such a great task. During the last talks in February 1934, Nazi senior officials of the Nazi officials Baldul von Schrah and Dalley simply scolded the emperor as a coward. Hitler said his mission was to punish November Sinners and rebuild the National Defense Force.
This work takes twelve to fifteen years, and the German monarchs are requested not to bother him again.
January 27, 1934 was the 75th birthday of William II. The monarchy held a celebration in Berlin. Hitler took the opportunity to declare all monarchy organizations. The monarchic nobles obviously did not expect that the party’s fists would hit themselves. Even if they were wearing the party emblem on their chests, they were still beaten by the impulse mob. Laivecuo, the director of the Berlin police, has no way to stop these violent activities. Gradually, some Prussians walked to the opposite of the Nazis.
Karl Gedler, one of the leaders of resistance sports
There are some monarchists and Prussia’s legacy in the anti -Nazi conspiracy group led by Carl Goerdler (1884-1945) and Earl Stephen Berg. Gedler is the main leader of the Anti -Nazi resistance. According to the plan, after the successful assassination of Hitler and the coup, he will become German Prime Minister. He is a monarchist. In the winter of 1940 to 1941, Gedler spent a lot of time discussing with his co -conspirators (General Lutwig Baker, etc.). Once the coup is successful, which member of the Hedorllen family should become emperor. Gedler opposed the return of the old emperor William II, and felt that he was not a suitable monarch. Gedler also opposed the Royal Prince William, because he was greedy for women, alcoholic and greedy cups, and was an irresponsible playboy, and publicly supported Nazis. He supports the emperor Oscar. Another route was Louis Fedannan, the second son of Empress William.
Like Blunning, Gedler advocates the British -style monarchy constitutional body. The emperor is just a symbolic head of state. There is no real power.
“Not to rule, but to protect the constitution and represent the country”
Essence Conspiracy even prepared a declaration of restoration. However, in the “July 20th Incident” in 1944, Schtaofenberg’s assassination of Hitler failed, and the conspiracy group was almost exhausted by a net. Emperor Sun Louis Fedannan had contact with the Anti -Nazi conspiracy group as early as the 1930s, and was arrested and interrogated by the Getae Taibao. The full authority of the Prussian royal family, Kurt Freiherr Von Pletnberg (1891-1945), is a member of the inner circle of Schtaofen Berger and others. Avoid leaks and protecting comrades. During the trial process, he punch the guard and jumped the window to commit suicide. It seems that monarchists are not short of blood fighters.
Blue and White Dream: Bavarian monarchism
The obstacles to restored their dreams of the Hoheng Soran dynasty not only include the Nazi Party, the Left Wing and the Ho Hengshalun monarchy themselves, but also the other local German monarchy. Protect.
Melvings of the Witsbach family
They are so powerful that they are enough to worry about Prussian monarch. After the emperor fled to the Netherlands, the conspirator around Crown Prince Prince panickedly that someone in Bavaria publicly declared: “The Vitsbach family should take over the flag of the empire!” —1955) Said that Ludidorf said to him in December 1921: “Now is the moment of decision to the overall situation, there is a particularly powerful force behind me. Whether it is Ho Hengsos, or Witsbach, who reached out, this is the hand, this is the Who is the support. “
Crown Prince Rouprech in Bavaria
If Rudon Taoov really said that, he is quite optimistic about the Witzbach family. No wonder. In sharp contrast to the chaos of Prussian Hodornon monarchy and internal quarrels,
Bavaria has quite powerful monarchy.
First of all, the King of Hoheh Sora’s monarchy should not support which prince should be restored, and the Bavarian monarchist has a controversial core figure and the throne: Ruperecht Prince. He enjoys a very good reputation and prestige. During the First World War, he served as the commander of the group’s military group, and won the rank of the Army Marshal. He is one of the best generals of the Germans during World War I, and may be the only soldiers among the members of the royal family who have obtained senior military posts with their noble background. Crown Prince William also served as the commander of the group army, but he did not have military talents. He was an empty shelf and mainly relied on the staff around him.
The Bavarian royal family’s reputation did not be stink like the Huo Heng Sauron family, and got the love and nostalgia of quite a lot of people. In addition, the last king of Bavaria (1845-1921) on November 12, 1918 was not an abdication declaration, but the loyalty obligations of civil and military officials and soldiers. Technically, neither he nor his son Rouprecht gave up the throne.
Bavarian King’s Teat
Bavaria has a strict and efficient monarchy organization: the “Bavarian Hometown and the Kings Alliance” established in 1921. It has a good mass foundation among the people, and has a good link with politics. By the end of 1926, there were 1,330 branches of “Bavaria Hometown and the Kings” and a total of 65,000 members.
“Bavaria Hometown and the Kings Alliance” also has an excellent leader. Baron Erwen FRHr. Aretin (1887-1952) is a strange man. Although the title is not high and not rich, he has high prestige among the Bavarian nobles. And among German nobles, his life experience is also unusual. He was built in Rypzh, Munich and Gostel, studying mathematics, astronomy and art history. He worked on the Vienna Observatory and later became a journalist. Because of his poor heart, he was far away from the most common occupation of German aristocracy -to the army. And his military colors and militarism of Prussian aristocracy also often produced sharply. He advocated in the 1924 book “Bavaria”,
A new Kingdom of Bavaria should be established, replacing the previous Austrian Empire, and becoming the “Oriental Fortress of the People in Germany”
, So as not to “Bargan-Jewish spiritual poisonous German body.” This racism and anti -Semitism thought was very common among conservatives at the time.
Prussian’s monarchy is often talked about, and everyone does not sincerely hope that the old emperor will come back. And Ari Ting was very serious about his monarchy mission and devoted himself to a lot of energy. In 1926, he reported that “the propaganda and encouragement of propaganda among urban residents has not made great progress,” but made great progress in the countryside. He obtained funds from some big landlords and his associations to engage in monarchy propaganda. There are also some nobles who generously use their palace and manor for “Bavaria’s Hometown and the Kings Alliance”. In 1929, Ari Ting reported to Ruprechr’s crown prince: “Although there are still many shortcomings, today’s” Bavaria Hometown and the Kings Alliance “is the most consolidated organization that His Royal Highness. Of course, it needs to need Improvement and new forces. But it can be transferred at any time and has a promising future. … None of other Germanys have organizations that can be compared with them. “
“Bavaria Hometown and King Alliance”
It is quite avant -garde in propaganda work, not as old as some nobles, but is willing to accept and use new technologies. It has its own newspaper, a leaflet, a slide, and its own team can give people to various places to conduct publicity activities and lectures. Crown Prince Rouprech also intends to make a promotional movie and screenwritten. His idea was to shoot a story about the story of Bavarian King Lutwich (1786-1868), which depicts him as a hero who resisted the war of the German Liberation of Napoleon. Because in general, the German heroes that have attracted the attention of the media and the literary world are Prussians, such as King Friedrich and Bismarck. Luprecht wants the public to learn more about Bavaria’s hero. Arcing also hopes that this film can overcome the prejudice of North Germany’s prejudice against Bavaria and enhance the prestige of Bavarian monarchism.
On the one hand, the plan to shoot film promotional films shows the avant -garde of Bavarian monarch and nobles, but on the other hand, it proves that they are not avant -garde enough. After all, the propaganda work of the Nazi party in the same period, as well as the promotional movie “Victory of Will” and “Olympia”, which was shot for the Nazis in just a few years later, in just a few years, the Bavarian nobles The few propaganda movies are still too immature.
The Bavarian monarch also considers the possibility of cooperation with Nazi. In February 1933, shortly after Hitler came to power, the Bavarian monarchy planned to launch a coup. At this time, some people had no death to the Nazi Party. They believe: “If Bavaria builds a monarch country, it will paralyze the current government and prevent fascism from spreading in Germany. The real part of the national socialism and everyone can be approved by everyone. In the relatives circle of Ryhrt, the majority of anti -Nazi people. The purpose of the coup they planned in February 1933 was “resisting the Nazi dictatorship”. Baron Areting was interrogated during the interrogation of the Getaeba in 1933:
“Those who believe in Hitler, as long as there are normal human reason, it is impossible to be loyal to the emperor.”
So in general, Bavarian monarchism is hostile to Nazi. This is a very different route as the Prussian monarchism described above to use the Nazis to achieve its own purposes. The coup plan even received the support of the Bavarian Social Democratic Party, but because of the opposition between President Xingdeburg and the National Defense Force, it was still not realized.
“Bavaria Hometown and the Kings Alliance” was banned by the Nazi Party in 1934. Some members later contacted several anti -Nazi resistance organizations. The “Hanl Group” led by Baron Adolf Freiherr Von Harnier (1903-1945) and William Soda Lezen (1901-1982), a doctor of law and a lawyer, led by the Hanol Group since 1933 Actively oppose the Nazis, spread the leaflets, advocate the Vitzbach family to regain the throne, oppose the restoration of the Huo Hengsonlon family, and require the improvement of the welfare of the labor class. Gaishi Tai Bao’s treacherous spy infiltrated the Hanier Group and suppressed it in 1939. Hanir died of illness in prison.
In November 1939, Johann Georg Elser (1903-1945), a carpenter Johnn Georg Elser, assassinated Hitler and was arrested. Gobel wrote in his diary that the assassination “may be done by the Bavarian monarch.” It doesn’t matter if Elze and Bavarian monarchism, but Gobel thinks so, obviously that the Nazi is very hostile to the Bavarian monarchism.
Crown Prince Rouprech himself has always kept a distance from various right rights. Hitler tried to win him and promised to help him restore. But during the Beer House coup in Hitler, Rouprecht persuaded Bavaria’s real power at that time Gustav von Kahr (1862-1934) not to support Hitler. Hitler said in private that he hated Rulecht, and Rulecht said that Hitler was a lunatic during lunch with King George V in London in 1934.
In 1939, the relationship between Crown Prince Rouprecht and Nazi severely deteriorated. He had to escape to Italy and accept the asylum of the King of Italy. He and his family were banned from returning to Germany. Crown Prince’s wife and children took refuge in Hungary. After the Germans occupied Hungary in October 1944, these royal women and children were arrested and put into concentration camps. In 1945, they were liberated by the U.S. military.
During World War II, Crown Prince Rouprech still dreamed of restoring the Bavarian monarchy, maybe Bavaria merged with Austria, becoming an independent South German will. In a memorandum in 1943,
He expressed his believe in Germany’s defeat in the war and hoping to protect the German people from destroying.
He even said that he could be the Emperor of Germany, because the Vitsbach family had been the Holy Roman Emperor in history.
Other local monarchic trends
In addition to Bavaria, Hanover also has a very strong monarchy, advocating restoration of the rule of the Welff family. During the Poao War in 1866, the Kingdom of Hanover stood in Austria and defeated the general army in a battle, but after all, it was out of match. Australia was defeated, and Hanover was annexed by Prussia, becoming a province of the Kingdom of Prussia. The Welph royal family that originally ruled Hannover was overthrown and exiled in Austria. In 1867, the party from the Hanover Protection of the Word of the Welfare formed the “Deutsch-Hannoversche Partei” to restore the rule of the Welph royal family. After the Revolution in November 1918, the “Deutsche-Hannover Party” demanded that a Hanover country was established within the framework of the Weimar Republic, but the referendum held for this reason did not reach the number of legal persons. In 1925, the German noble association (DAG) Hanover branch of Welff monarchism also conflicted with the German noble association Berlin headquarters. It can be seen that monarchism cannot unite the aristocracy, but instead makes them even more split. Wellf monarchism, like Bavarian monarchy, has the ingredients of Prussia. After all, these two regions have stood on the opposite side of Prussia.
Some Catholic nobles in southwestern Germany also have a longing for the Habsburg family.
I even believe that the ancient sacred Roman Empire is orthodox
The Habsburg family is the leader of German, and the Huo Hengsorlan family is just usurped. Augustus von Galen (1870-1949) said in 1926: “The Hohene Suslun family has no relationship with the old empire, so it is not the legal heir of the old empire at all. . From this perspective, they should never be the claims of the Crown in the future. “Some nobles in southwestern Germany, especially the princes, are still insisting on the thoughts of the Holy Roman Empire. At the same time, he is close to the Habsburg family, and at the same time believes in Catholicism, and is closely linked to the Austrian Church, so there are many nobles who support the Habsburg family rule Germany. However, Habsburg monarchy is also mainly a vague and ambiguous idea in Germany, without actual action. Besides, this is even more unrealistic than Ho Hengsonon monarchism.
Earl Graf v. Neipperg explained to a Bavarian nobleman that the Bavarian aristocracy was loyal to the Witsbach family, but the nobles in the southwest of the local ruling dynasty and Baden The ruler’s Celenggen family has no good opinion. Because these two ruling families have been improved under the support of Napoleon, and many of the status of the accompanying princes that originally belonged to the Holy Roman Empire and the Votteburg and Baden (at least in theory) are sitting flat, but now they have to surrender They are very dissatisfied. Correspondingly, the Royn Royal Family is very hostile to the accompanying princes who had been equal to themselves and restricted and constrained them. Many aristocrats are quite resentful about these monarchs. Therefore, there is no Fu Tengbao monarchism.
In addition to regional differences and conflict between the monarchism of the Republic of Weimar and the Third Empire, there is also a serious problem that no one is successor. Even among young aristocrats and rights, fewer and few people are interested in the restoration of the monarchy. A survey by the nobles and the large bourgeoisie elite community (Deutscher Herrenklub) showed that although the younger generation of rights resolutely opposed the Republic’s system and parliamentary democracy, there was no connection with the world before the First World War. How much nostalgia and longing, so it is difficult to guide these people to the road of monarchism. The conclusions of the survey of Klerst-Schmenjin’s investigation in the East East River in 1932 are the same.
Even the Bavarian nobles who are the most enthusiastic about monarchism are also green and yellow. Although the older generation of Bavarian nobles who believed in monarchy worked hard to instill the idea of monarchism from young people, the Bavarian branch of the German noble Association acknowledged that among the younger generation nobles “
No orthodoxism and monarchy thoughts “
Essence Although the young nobles firmly opposed the Weimar’s “system”, they “refused to blindly obey the elders”. A report in 1928 pointed out concerns that many young Bavarian nobles publicly stated: “We have no feeling for the monarchy.”
Monarchism after 1945
Prussia, Ho Hengson
After experiencing the suppression of the Nazi era, many discussions on the monarchy in West Germany in the 1950s. One -third of West German citizens hoped to establish a certain form of monarchy. Hans-Joachim Schoeps (1909-1980), a historian and philosopher, advocated the reconstruction of the Prussian country and invited the Huo Heng Sauron family to return to restoration. He also planned to form a “monarchy and people’s alliance”, but it was not realized after being exposed by the media.
Some people want to restore the monarchy under the framework of the Federal Basic Law of the West Germany.
However, the Federal Basic Law stipulates that the national body is the republic and cannot be changed, unless constitutional amendment.
“Bund Aufrechter Monarchisten” is the successor organization of the “Positive Alliance” in West Germany, but this new alliance expressed its political system and federal regulation of freedom and democracy. The people who came to be the main emperor replaced the Federal President. In 2014, the alliance disbanded by itself.
During the Federal Presidential Election in 1969, a reader survey conducted by the magazine QUICK and Bild (BILD) showed that most respondents believed that Prince Louis Fedannan, the family chief of the Hohene Sosalon family at the time, was a suitable presidential candidate Essence
But since the 1960s, the influence of monarchism has become weaker and weaker in West Germany.
The main reason is that West Germany’s “economic miracle” makes it a rich and strong democratic country
; The generations who have been affected by the 1918 incident have gradually drifted away; the new generation of young people do not understand or familiar with the monarchy. So monarchism has lost most of the continuity.
In the 21st century, Germany also had many various monarchy organizations, the two most influential of which were “traditional and life” and “Bürgervereinigung Der Monarchiefreunde”. The purpose of these two organizations is to establish a constitutional monarchy headed by the Hoheng Sauron family. “Tradition and Life” firmly advocated the support of most citizens through peaceful means, just like the peaceful unity of Eastern and Western virtues in 1989. Its slogan is “We are crowned by democracy!”, And advocates the implementation of the monarchy at the national level, but citizens of each state can decide to implement the monarchy or republic.
After the end of World War II, Bavaria was in the U.S. military occupation zone. In September 1945, Eisenhower personally arranged the plane to send Prince Rouprech to Munich. He continued to propagate the idea of the monarchy, and Americans did not support him, but were quite courteous to him.
In 1952, the last elderly legacy of the Witzbach family rebuilt the “Bavarian Hometown and the Kings Alliance”, but the U.S. military immediately banned the organization. Crown Prince Rouprech proposed that in the second empire era, some local governments were republic, such as burgers and the government. Essence For example, in Bavaria, the monarchy government obeyed the central government, allowing state prime ministers to act as the leading government leader, and let the hereditary monarch (that is, the people of the Witzbach family) responsible for the representative head of state.
At this time, the Cold War has begun, and in a harsh environment, this proposal cannot be responded.
The Western camps led by the United States and the West Germany government supported by the United States certainly would not be interested in this.
In September 1954, 70 of the 193 members of the Bavarian local parliament claimed that they were monarchists.
After the death of Crown Prince Rudrecht in 1955, most Bavarians accepted a new system. However, the Bavarian still has a good opinion of the Witzbach family. In 1967, the “Bavarian Hometown and the Kings Alliance” was rebuilt, but it was renamed “Bayernbund”. Today’s “Bavarian Alliance” has given up monarchism,
The new purpose is to protect Bavaria’s unique culture and lifestyle, enhance the people’s understanding of history, protect Western Christian traditions, and protect Bavaria’s various dialects.
In addition to the “Bavarian Alliance”, the monarchist organization “Bavarian Hometown and the Kings” established in 1945, noticing it, it has nothing to do with “Bavarian hometown and the Kings Alliance”. “Bavaria Hometown and the King Party” was banned by the U.S. military in 1946 and rebuilt in 1950, but soon failed in politics.
Premier Zehofer took the monarchy’s medal in the previous hands
Federal parliament members of the BayernPartei Anton Besold (1904-1991) and Ogen Fürstein-Wallerstein, 1904-1991, 1904-1991), ) They all said that they supported the monarchy at the end of 1951. In 1988, the Bavarian Party’s youth organization “JungbayernBund” requested the implementation of a monarchy in Bavaria. However, the Bavarian Party, as a formal party, keeps a distance from these appeals. Bavaria’s major Christian Social Alliance (CSU) also had monarchy in 1945 and 1949. Today, the Christian Social Union is also linked to some monarchic organizations. For example, the members of Reaganburg’s monarchy organization are almost all politicians of the Christian Social Union. In 2010, Horst Seehofer, Horst Seehofer, Chairman of the Bavarian Prime Minister and the Chairman of the Christian Social Alliance, (1949-) Essence
The Deutsche Partei developed from the Deutsch-Hannoversche Partei (Deutsche Partei “has clear monarchic colors in the 1952 party constitution. They believe that the head of state should be transcendence and independent of various political parties. Hans-Joachim Von Merkatz (1905-1982), a “German Party” politician of the “German Party” politician of multiple ministerial positions (1905-1982), publicly advocated recovery in the Federal Parliament in October 1951 in October 1951 Monarchy. The “Welfenbund” formed in 1952 was about 300 members in 1992.
In 1914, most of the major European countries were still monarchs, and by the end of 1918, many crowns, including Russian emperor, German emperor, Austro -Hungarian emperor, and more than 20 states of Germany, have landed. The restoration of the emperor’s system may be delusional, and the German monarchy has once mistakenly entered the cooperation with the Nazi demon. However, in the final analysis, the most fierce enemy of the monarchism is still the Nazis. Surprisingly, monarchism has been survived to the German Olympics in the early 21st century, although its forms of existence have been very different from the appearance of William II and Crown Prince Roublacht.
Today’s German aristocracy is a part of a democratic society, and the monarchy has his own space in a society with freedom of thought, freedom of society, and freedom of speech.
On August 27, 2011, the current patriarch of the Hohene Sosora family, Prince Prince of Prussia George Friedrich (1976-) and Miss Eissen, Sophie Jamina Maria’s wedding ceremony in Potsdam attracted The enthusiastic attention of German media and the public. During the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, German women Hilvia Sollat met the Swedish crown prince and became the queen of Sweden. It was a wonderful legend for many Germans. Queen Elizabeth, who has a blood relationship with Germany, has visited Germany for two times, which has attracted the attention of the public. Scholar Herfride Mindakle lamented that Federal Germany did not have its own myth. Compared with the monarchy such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, the Democratic Republic, sometimes lacking such a little brilliance, and there are many people who make people happy. Tao topic.