Li Wenjie: Zhu is criticized by Zhu, and the upper side is the Shangzhang

Editor’s note: Qing Palace opera is the topic of the popularity in the Chinese drama market. Regardless of whether the drama or the show, frequently occupy the top of the topic list. The audience and friends in front of the TV were immersed. After a while, the emperor came to the world and followed the concubine to fight the palace. In the process, many knowledge about the military affairs of the Qing Dynasty, the official system of the military, the ritual and music of the poetry, the palace furniture, utensils, food, and clothing such as the Qing Dynasty’s military affairs, the official system of the officials, the poetry and the ceremony, the poetry and the ceremony, the poetry and the ceremony. In almost all the Qing Palace opera, you can see the drama played by the ministers and the emperor. “Wenhui Scholar” publishes an article related to this to introduce the knowledge conveyed by the Qing Dynasty’s decree in detail.

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

Zhu’s Zhu’s approval and Shangyi of the monarch at the end of the Qing Dynasty

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

Text / Li Wenjie

The major changes of Zhu’s approval and Shangzhu in the late Qing Dynasty

The important decree in the Qing Dynasty mainly conveyed through two ways: First, the Zhu’s approval of the monarch’s folding the work of the minister; Generally speaking, Zhu’s criticism is the authenticity of the monarch, which is biased towards spoken language, and the content is relatively simple. The upper part of the long -term response to the memorial -Zhu’s approval cannot be written, so it must be placed separately; the other part is to announce a certain decree, and it may not be targeted at specific memorials. Zhu Xing is not as good as the reorganization of the genre, and the content is not as good as the fact. However, in the early days of the rise of memorials, in the Kangyong era, monarchs often favored this direct dialogue. After the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the role of the secretary agency of the Military Aircraft Office gradually became prominent. The slightly difficult opinion was granted the idea of ​​the monarch, the military aircraft minister and the military aircraft Zhang Jing planned, and then the monarch was reviewed.

Except for the emphasis on etiquette and foreign affairs and foreign affairs, such as 敕, 诏, system, 诰 and other documents, the upper -time 谕 related to the daily decree can be divided into three categories, which are drawn up by the military aircraft: the first category is the public “Mingfa”, and the format is ” The Cabinet of the Cabinet of the Year … “. The second category is the “Ting sending” that sends a specific object. The format is “the word of the military minister sent someone, and the year of the year is served …”, the aimed at Ting sent The big secretary, the minister of the military plane directly sent the relevant responsible person, the responsible person is generally in the field. The third is called “Jiaotong”, the object is the gate of the Beijing Central Academy, and the format is “Ding a certain institution, the Minister of Military Affairs …”. (See Figure 1) According to the “Daqing Symposium”, the delivery was a type of military aircraft department, but it was actually a decree conveyed to the Beijing Central Academy of Military Aircraft (Kungang et al. DPRK) Volume 30, “Continued Four Treasury Books”, 794, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2002, p. 274).

Figure 1 From left to right, three pieces of sub -films, courts, and Mingfa’s decree in 1898 (Edited by the First History Archives of China: “Guangxu Xuantong Two Dynasties Upper File”, Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press , 1997, pages 129, 134)

Whether it is Zhu’s criticism or the upper end, it is the manifestation of the will of the monarch: It is not necessary to say that Zhu Caihu’s authentic Zhu Caihuo, which is drafted by the military aircraft, the council, and the film on the film. The awarded person is undoubtedly the monarch. This model is regarded by the Qing people as a magic weapon to avoid the next side of power. When compared with the system of the calendar, it becomes a very proud institutional advantage. However, in the late Qing Dynasty, no matter whether it was Zhu’s approval or the upper -hand, major changes have taken place in form. There are some changes, seemingly unrelated; some affect the direction of power structure and system.

The change of the system was in 1861, and let us start that year. The Xinyi coup in 1861 has long been familiar with future generations. After the coup, a new system of lingering curtains listening to politics and discussing politics and discussing politics also changed the original method of decree.

In early August 1861, the Emperor Xianfeng, who was ill in the summer villa, could not criticize the memorial. However, large and small national affairs cannot be accommodated, especially in the face of the trapped bureau caused by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the British and French forces, the disposal of the military affairs cannot be issued. Emperor Xianfeng could not hand over Zhu Bi in his hand as the novel wild history. On August 2nd (June 26), after the Emperor Xianfeng on the sick couch received the memorial, he no longer approved as before. Instead, he handed the memorial to the former minister and military aircraft minister to let them read it. Write the review opinions and detailed decision as a sign, and clamp it in the middle of the memorial. After they returned to the opinion, Emperor Xianfeng basically received all the orders and did not make much change. This model that was approved by the Conscience Minister’s approval and aimed, and the simple confirmation of the monarch continued for 20 days until the emperor died on the 22nd.

After that, according to the widow of Emperor Xianfeng, the four imperial ministers of Zaiyuan, Duanhua, Jingshou, and Su Shun, Mu Yin, Kuangyuan, Du Han, and Jiao Youzheng were eight. “Government affairs”, that is, to batch the memorials, handle daily government affairs (edited by the first historical archives in China: “Volume 11 of” Xianfeng Tongzhi Two Dynasties “, p. 263). The opinions of the proposed approval and the purpose were presented by the Minister of Government Affairs in the form of playing and the list, and handed over to the Empress Dowager Ci’an and the little emperor (from the biological mother Cixi Emperor). “Two stamps confirm, and then copy the instructions to the end of the memorial, and will be sent out. Therefore, the instruction format of the court ’s Gongfu has also changed: the original Zhu’s approval was changed to ink batch, and the words” The Military Aircraft Office praised the Minister of Government Affairs of Government Affairs “in the presence; The words of the princes of the Government Affairs of the Government Affairs, the words of the words of the court, the month of the day of the day “(” Xianfeng Tongzhi Two Dynasties “, Volume 11, p. 274; as shown in Figure 2). After a long time, more than a month later, Xin Yan’s coup occurred. Prince Gong Yixin was awarded as “the king of politics” and walked at the military aircraft office. In fact, he achieved the status of the leader of the military aircraft. As a result, Zhu’s approval format looked up and changed to the word “Discussion on the Minister of the King Junjun”, while the Ting sent the purpose was changed to the word “Discussion on the Politics of the King Junjun Machine” (“Xianfeng Tongzhi Two Dynasties”, Volume 11, 379 , Pages 381; as shown in Figure 3).

Figure 2 Zan Xiang’s During the Period of the Political Affairs (Fujian Governor Ruizhen, June 26, June 26th of Xianfeng, Edited by the Taipei Palace Museum: “Reades of Ryukyu Historical Materials in the Qing Dynasty: Zhuzhuzhuzhuo in the Palace” 2015)

Figure 3 Before the coup and the coup and the coup to send two aims (“Xianfeng Tongzhi Dynasties”, Volume 11, pp. 346, 389)

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

Here, we need to pay attention to a few details: the first is the instructions of the memorial. When the monarch personally took power, he used Zhu Bi to instruction himself, and under the Minister of Government Affairs, the eight ministers were instructed by the eight ministers. They could only use the ink pen. The purpose is from the meaning of the monarch, but it is just handed over to the Minister of Government. The same is true under the Minister of Political Affairs of the King Junjun.

The second is the order issue in the name. Under the Minister of Zhan Xiang, the proposed to approve the word “The Minister of Government of the Military Aircraft Office of the Government Affairs/Word”. Wenxiang, composed of the Minister of Government Affairs of the Military Affairs Minister and the Minister of Military Affairs. In the sorting of this group, Zaiyuan, Duanhua, Su Shun, and Jingshou, who are the relatives of the emperor’s relatives, are obviously higher than the ministers of the military aircraft, but the military aircraft department is arranged before the Minister of Government Affairs. Some military aircraft offices have the purpose of the purpose of the purpose. After the coup, the proposal to be approved to use the words “the Minister of the King’s Military Military Affairs”, and awarded the status of the chief military aircraft of politics on the military minister on the military minister.

The two systems seem to be similar, and the king of politics is even more powerful. In fact, this is not the case. The key is the understanding of the word “dedication”. Under the two systems, the Minister Wang intends to criticize the fighter to add the words “dedication”, indicating that the instructions come from the top. However, the little emperor obviously did not have an independent will, and his understanding of the “purpose” was different. The Empress Dowager of the two palace naturally believes that they are seal on the opinions of the proposed approval and the purpose, which means the review, which means that they have been descended, but the Minister of Government Affairs believes that they assist the young masters and “praise all government affairs.” It is the policy of policy. Under the coup to discuss the political king system, it has clearly stipulated that the proposed approval and the purpose must be adhering to the meaning of the queen queen of the two palace and handed them to them to review the seal. In other words, “Feng Zun” is really “Feng Yi”. There is a huge difference in the major question of who has the last decision right.

In 1864, after three years of the Empress Dowager of the Two Palace, the operation of the government had been relatively familiar with the operation of government affairs. The Empress Dowager Cixi looked for excuses and withdrew the title of Yixin’s “King of Politics”. After that, the memorial format of the memorial becomes the word “Military Military Minister”, and the format format becomes “the word of the military machine minister, and the month of the month.” This situation continued until the beginning of 1873, and since then, since then, the Emperor Tongzhi restored the normal power of the monarch of the Qing Dynasty, approved the memorial, and drafted the upper and lower issuance with the assistance of the military aircraft. But this situation has not been maintained for too long. At the end of 1874, Emperor Tongzhi was in bed, and he could not handle the government. But the memorial must be reviewed in time, and the state affairs must not be accumulated for a day. In this case, the Queen of the Emperor of the Two Palace ordered the emperor’s closest to picked up Zhu Bi to replace the emperor for reading the memorial: Manchu Zhen received every day, and the emperor’s uncle Gong Yixin invited the descendants of the descendants; Hanwen memorial, The emperor’s chief teacher Li Hongzao approved. The various ups and daily departures issued by the military are still requested by the military minister to find out.

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

Not long after the emperor Tongzhi died, the Empress Dowager Cixi asked the son of Prince Alcohol to “into the Emperor Xianfeng” to “enter the Dadong” as Emperor Guangxu. Because the emperor was young and four years old, the minister of the prince still asked the queen queen of the two palaces to listen to politics, and the military aircraft department headed by Yi Xin assisted government affairs. Later, the queen queen queen of the two palaces was drained; the upper -handed queen was drafted by the queen queen of the palace, and the post -handed queen queen queen queen was re -reviewed after the formulation. Review of the memorial is copied at the end of the memorial based on the approved opinion of the approved approval, and uses the ink pen. The content of the “Military Machine Minister” before the content (see Figure 4).

Figure 4 Emperor Guangxu’s pro -government minister on behalf of the military aircraft (edited by the Taipei Palace Museum: “The Palace in the Palace of Guangxu Champion”, Taipei: Forbidden City Museum, 1973, p. 19)

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

This situation continued until 1887 Emperor Guangxu’s political politics. Since then, he began to use Zhu Bi to review the memorials and release it. But at this time, it was only for training and use of power. Two years later, when the emperor completed the big marriage, the Empress Dowager Cixi announced “returning to politics.” According to the design of the emperor’s father, Prince Yizheng, although the state affairs were “pro -to -law” by the emperor, the main batch opinions and the purpose of the day were copied to the Empress Dowager Cixi for preparation.

In the autumn of 1898, the Empress Dowager Cixi announced the training again. Emperor Guangxu became a puppet, and even the throne was not guaranteed. But no matter what the actual power is, the memorial is still reviewed by him (see Figure 5), and there is no abnormality in the format. From a formal point of view, the emperor seems to be in power, but in fact, regardless of whether it is batch or the purpose, he must obey the opinions of the Empress Dowager Cixi.

Figure 5 The Zhu Guan of Emperor Guangxu before the coup and the coup did not change (Edited by the Taipei Palace Museum: “Yuan Shikai’s Fighting Album” Volume 1, Taipei: Palace Museum, 1970, p. 1, 3, 22)

Zhao Binglin’s three plays

In 1908, Emperor Guangxu and the Empress Dowager Cixi died, and Pu Yi, the son of Xiaoli Wang Zaiyu, inherited Dadong, and was supervised by Zaiyu as an regent. Because the emperor was young, the memorial was directly reviewed by the regent of the regent, and the Shangji was drafted by the Minister of the Military Plane. Of course, this process must also take care of the opinions of Queen Mother Longyu. At this time, a new change has occurred about the issuance of the decree.

It turned out that when Emperor Guangxu and the Empress Dowager Cixi were still alive, the Qing court announced in 1906 to “prepare to establish a constitution.” One of the Royal Shi named Zhao Binglin made a suggestion in the following year: the system of restoring the signature of the military aircraft. What is the military aircraft signature system? Zhao Binglin excavated the historical facts of the Qing Dynasty and led two stories during the Qianlong period: First, in 1765 (thirty years of Qianlong), Emperor Qianlong ordered the provincial governors to write in the court of reciprocating the military aircraft ministers. “Send”, but should write the name of the person who sent the court; in 1771 (36 years of Qianlong), when Emperor Qianlong ordered the military aircraft to send the decree, the name of the sender was written: Manwen wrote Fulongan, Manwen wrote Fulongan, Hanwen was written in Minzhong. From a formal point of view, Emperor Qianlong’s twice ordered was to highlight the specific purpose of the deeds and strengthen the personal responsibilities of the military minister. Zhao Binglin took out this old example and said that it was “the old system of the military aircraft also signed the minister”; in addition, he said that from the usual convention, “Any administrative manager must make the minister’s signature, and let the right and responsibilities be responsible for responsibility. “”. Based on the above two points, especially the ancestral system, Zhao Binglin suggested that the old system stated that “the matter of all preaching, regardless of whether it is the Ming Dynasty and the secret, the name of the minister of the purpose of the purpose is to prepare for the assessment.”

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

In fact, the two orders of Emperor Qianlong had the same background: the emperor was inspected outside, and only some military ministers were accompanied. At that time in 1765, Emperor Qianlong was inspected in Jiangnan, and the military aircraft team did not follow up. Therefore, when the Ting sent the purpose and received a reply, the name of the military minister who wrote the purpose was to clearly the reason for the order to prevent the emergence from appearing False accident. At that time in 1771, Emperor Qianlong was inspected in Shandong. The Minister of Military Aircraft was divided into two parts: staying in Beijing and driving with driving. This is not to highlight the administrative responsibility of the Minister of Military Affairs, but to eliminate the space for the pseudo -passing, and supervise the Minister of the Military Aircraft’s ministers carefully and to convey the life. In other words, the fundamental purpose of doing so is to not give the military minister any room for fake public sale and private, and the intention of preaching. The Minister of the Government of the Constitutional Kingdom of the monarchy is signed by the policies that he formulates, which runs counter to the intention of Qianlong’s story. Zhao Binglin tried to use it in ancient times, which can be described as the same. After his suggestion was reached, the Empress Dowager Cixi stayed in the middle and did not give any reply.

Seeing his own policy suggestions, there was no result. Zhao Binglin played again five days later, explained in detail the signature of the military aircraft, saying that “the government has responsibility, supervision, can not be borrowed after the work. The signature of the office (government), “All my old system”, Gao Zong and Renzong have implemented it, “Prince Gong started to abolish when supporting the government.” He suggested that the four categories of the upper division are made into a book, that is, Mingfa, Tingjian, Jiaotai, and electricity. When each article, the name of the manuscript is clearly written, and when issuing a properly, write clearly the title of the military aircraft minister of the military plane. , No longer blur the word “Military Aircraft Division Put a certain gate, and take the bumper in a month and day.” And the book book is given to Yu Shi to investigate. In the future, “clear at a glance, no responsibility”, “but make the Ming determine responsibility, establish supervision, and the old system also has a constitutional nature.” Let the ministers of the military aircraft be signed on the upper part, and they can clearly determine the responsibility and make the old system have a constitutional nature. There is no certain logic in the middle. Because all the imperial decree comes from the intention, the signature system strengthens the tendency of the military minister’s honesty, not the responsibility of daily governance. Rights and responsibilities are correspondingly generated. When the administrative power is not in the hands of the military minister, it is naturally not corresponding to the corresponding responsibility. If they take responsibility, they must give corresponding power, and this was undoubtedly impossible at the time. Therefore, Zhao Binglin’s memorial was once again left in the country.

By the end of 1908, the Empress Dowager Cixi died with Emperor Guangxu. The newly appointed emperor was young. At this time, Zhao Binglin played for the third time and proposed the signature of the military aircraft. He once again talked about the “story” signed by the Minister of Military Affairs in the thirty and thirty -six years of Qianlong, praising the ancestral system: “Push the saint’s legislation, and learn from the ink seal of the Tang Dynasty in the Tang Dynasty. The disadvantages are endless. Imitate the correct practice of the previous generation. However, Zhao also said that “the system of vice deputy departments of the East and the West is the same as this.” He insisted on equating the two actions with different properties and similar phenomena. He suggested that the military aircraft minister’s daily aimed to send and submit films, “You should also follow Qianlong’s ancestral system. After the decree, the name of the inheritance was issued one by one. Write the words and other words and other words of the Military Aircraft Minister and so on.

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

After two Shi Shenhai, Zhao Binglin’s suggestion finally responded. Nine days later, the cabinet and other gates followed the relevant etiquette of the regulatory king of the country. One of them was the seal and signature format of the Shangyi. “Everyone has the decree, and the Minister of the Military Aircraft is signed by the Military Plane Minister, and then obeyed the Minister of Military Affairs. Implementation. To the regent of the regent, the Wang Ru has the purpose of facing the face, and the king’s seal is also signed. “From then on, the memorial was still approved by the regent of the regent, but the parties written by the other article were all written by the regent Wang Xizhang and the military plane. All ministers signed (see Figure 6). The military aircraft department is the monarch’s secretariat. All the signatures of the staff and the addition of snakes are really nondescript. Liang Qichao wrote a special article for this purpose, “The Minister of Military Military Military Minister’s Signature and the Secretary of State of the State of the State of the Constitutional State”, published in the “National Wind Daily” in April 1910, to distinguish the two. He said: “The ministers of the military aircraft are described, and if the writing machine, the voice passed on the eloquence of the spoofing machine, and the ears of the words, and the end of the paper must be dotted with a line of cloud‘ written by a certain machine ’.

Figure 6 The signature system of the Xuantong Chaozhang Regent Wang Xizhang and the Minister of Military Affairs (Edited by the First History of China: “Volume 34 of the Gwangxu Xuantong Two Dynasties”, p. 290)

Compared with Zhao Binglin, Liang Qichao’s understanding of the Qing system is more accurate. He said: “I set up a military aircraft from the Yuan Dynasty from the early Yongzhengyuan, and was from a country’s government. It was two hundred years along the way. Extremely from the beginning. “Some people believe that the military plane ministers are similar to the deputy regulations of the Secretary of State of the State of the State of the State. It must be signed for the reason that all the purpose of prove the truth of 诏 敕 and the anti -ethics officials. “And if the military aircraft is really responsible for administration, it must have corresponding power. The signature system must be dependent on the organizational responsibility of the organization and began to use it. ” “Collection of Ice Room”, Volume 3, “Collection” 25, Zhonghua Book Company, 1989, p. 55-56)

After comparing Liang Qichao’s discussion, Zhao Binglin’s statement showed various loopholes. First of all, his so -called military aircraft signature system, “Prince Gong started to abolish when he assisted”, but in fact, the Qianlong Emperor Qianlong did not bring the entire military aircraft team because of the above. The Minister of Deficiency stated during the time that the person who passed the purpose was not particularly prominently prominent. As for the signature of the military aircraft ministers, it has never been ever. The biggest reason why Zhao Binglin proposed the “ancestral system” that did not exist is that he wants to make the military ministers, especially Yiyi and Yuan Shikai, so as not to “pay private goods” when they are passed on. But once this system is implemented, it has triggered unexpected storms.

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

Impeachment military engine case

In 1910, the assets court officially held a perennial meeting. According to the chapter, the assets court can decide the state -age years of age, tax law and public debt bill, new codes and monarchy. The Military Aircraft Office and the Ministry of Administration can send staff to the meeting and state political opinions, but do not participate in voting. If the Institute of Political Court has doubts about administrative matters, you can ask for a reply. If you have different opinions, you can invite the sanctuary. The assets court decided to publicize the public theory and prepare as the basis for the establishment of the upper and lower House in the future. However, there is no supervision relationship between the assets court and the military aircraft department and the administrative departments. This relationship is slightly embarrassing. On October 19th (September 17), the Assets Council passed a decision to submit a speakers to the Military Aircraft Office all year round to question whether the deputy department system of the military aircraft department means the national administrative responsibility and whether the constitutional preparation hall has the highest legislative power. Intersection (“Registered Fast Records of the first annual meeting of the Chronicles of the Institute of Assets and the Political Court”, Li Qicheng School: “Quick Records of the Assets Institute’s Conference”, Shanghai Sanlian Bookstore, 2011, 54-55) Only clarify this one The problem can only understand the status of the Institute of Ziqi and the significance of the operation of the assets of the Institute of Assets.

The posts of the Institute of Zizheng were led by Yi Zongzheng. In 1874, this life was participated in the founding of the Southern Society with Tan Yitong. During the Reform of the Reform of the Reform Law, he served as the editor of the Journal of Xiang Xiang. Yi Zongzheng asked the military aircraft office to ask the military aircraft office to divide the division of power. This storytelling is called “Questions”, but it uses the format of the pair of higher -level institutions. In the post, Yi Zongxuan asked: “The court (assets and government courts) respectfully inherit the Ming Dynasty, and is the basis of the upper and lower House of House. The composition of the law. This member asked for the quality of the chapter: The military minister now adopts the deputy department system, and the non -signature of the signed the tail will be the responsibility of the State Minister of the Cabinet of various countries. Is it completely responsible and not completely responsible? ” Although the problem has been thrown, no one can answer, because the military aircraft department is not an isolated administrative agency. Behind the monarchy, according to Liang Qichao’s words, the work of the military aircraft is like “the voice of the writing machine will be passed on by the ranging machine. The sound of this, the sound is derived from the monarch, and the questioning of the military aircraft is equivalent to questioning the monarch.

Immediately after, another thing happened. Hunan governor Yang Wending decided to issue public debt and raised the New Deal funds. Theoretically, the government’s debt involved in the government’s debt, the Central Council of the Council was decided, and the local counseling bureau decided. However, Yang Wending claimed that he did not consult the Hunan Consultation Bureau. As a result, the Assets Court played as requested. After receiving the memorial, the regent of the regent allowed the military aircraft to make a decision on the issuance of the public debt of Hunan, which was awarded the criterion of the menstrual branch. Yunzhong, still followed the previous purpose. After the upper office, the military ministers, Yizhen, Yulang, Nagong, and Xu Shichang, signed (“The 36th” of “Guangxu Xuantong Dynasties”, pp. 383-384). The next day, Yi Zongzheng issued opinions at the Consultation Bureau all year round: “This time the Hunan public debt affairs are requested to be tied, and now they have been regarded as a decision. Military aircraft ministers must be invited to attend the reasons for explanation. “

On November 22, another thing happened. According to the chapters of the Institute of Assets and Politics, the hospital can decide on the state’s annual revenue and expenditure budgets, tax laws and public debt events, new codes and post -amendments. But what is a decision? The articles of association are not explained. In accordance with the general government operation rules of the Qing Dynasty, the Institute of Ziqi must write the decision to the trustees to ask for the purpose. Specifically, by 1910, it was approved by the regent of the regent, or with the assistance of the military aircraft office, it was completed and issued. On November 20, after the decision to increase the price increase in Yunnan’s salt pound, the court offered to the request, and then received Zhu’s approval: “Supervise the Salt Minister to inspect the nuclear”; , Also played the request, and then received Zhu’s approval: “The Ministry of Civil Affairs inspected the nuclear play.” The two places instructed the signatures and seals of four military ministers. (“Political Bulletin” October 202, October 202, p. 2-3) Under the new institutional system, the assets court may be Zhuzu in Zaiyu, and it is likely to be a routine instructions. ; It is also possible that the military aircraft office is approved by Zaiyu. From the perspective of the “ancestral system”, there is no problem with the instruction process; but if it compares it with the constitutional government, it shows the problem: the assets court is regarded as the foundation of Congress and is separated from the administrative power. The assets court decided that it was no longer able to submit the administrative agency -supervision of the Minister of Salt and the Ministry of Civil Affairs. This is the administrative power seizing legislative power, so parliamentarians cannot accept this result. Because the members could not question the regent of the regent, and the signature of the military minister after the upper office, the fellows pointed at the military minister.

At the Meeting of the Institute of Ziqi on November 22, Yi Zongzheng responded fiercely on the handling of the two memorials. He said: “The Legislative Council of the Institute of assets and the country of the constitutional body is the three power of the three powers. One is legislation, the other is justice, and the other is administration. What is the three power? Said legislation, justice, and administration, both independent and unbalanced. Now these two copies are determined by the court. The Yunnan Salt Price Invasion Case and the Guangxi Patrol Police Case, a handling of the Salt Office of the Salt Office of the Salt Office, and the one to the Ministry of Civil Affairs to investigate the nuclear and played by the Ministry of Civil Affairs. , Deputy Department of Military Aircraft Ministers, the Minister of Military Aircraft has the responsibility. Do n’t you know that the legislature is independent? Since you know that it is an independent organs, the case that the legislature is decided will not be used to inspect the nuclear administrative department . It can be seen that the Minister of Military Aircraft is the right to invade the government and the law of illegal capital. ” “Conference Speed ​​Record”, p. 242) Yi Zongzheng suggested that in accordance with Article 21 of the “Institute of Assets and Politics” “Minister of Military Machinery or the Minister of Administration of various ministries, if there is an authority or violation of laws, the president may be invaded. According to the actual performance of Chen, the vice president should be decided “to impeach the military aircraft. At the same time, some members put forward suggestions for the impeachment of the military aircraft office and the other to organize the cabinet as soon as possible (the “Quick Record of the first annual meeting of the first annual meeting of the Institute of Assets and the People’s Republic of China”, pp. 245-246). In the end, the impeachment military aircraft case was passed by two -thirds of the number of Super Members (the “Fast Records of the first annual meeting of the Chronicles of the Institute of Assets and the Political Court”, p. 254. 112).

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

The impeachment military aircraft case was a collision of the old and new system. Standing under the eaves and eaves of the old system, the supervisor’s regent Wang Daixing Zhu’s appointment or the military aircraft office intends to discount the government affairs departments to negotiate. This is the old case. The bill was issued again to the administrative department for review, which made the members unacceptable. In the old system, the emperor personally ruled the government, and the military aircraft department was the highest administrative power secretary. Under the new system, as a legislative institution, as the Institute of assets, as a legislative agency, requested the coexistence with the administrative power. The imperial power blur, and it is also parallel to the cabinet that is parallel to supervision. This involves the core of the government at that time and the most tricky issue in the preparation of the preparations of the late Qing Dynasty -imperial power.

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

After the impeachment memorial was handed on, the chief military plane celebrated the prince Yizheng, saying that “the talent is exhausted, and there is no time to be difficult.” On December 18th, the King of the State Regent King used the most serious “Zhu Xun” form to connect to the two ups and downs, in response to the memorials of the positive and negative sides. Zhu Yan rejected the Minister of Military Aircraft, and at the same time, he severely refuted the impeachment of the government court. The latter side stated: “The Minister of the Institute of Zizheng’s” The Minister of the Institute of Politics ” is unknown and the funds and supplements are folded, and I have seen it. “The Outline of the Constitution”. It is the responsibility and irresponsibility of the military minister, and the establishment of a liability cabinet. “” “Book 36, p. 475) Obviously, Zaiyu has seen the attempts of the impeachment of the Institute of Ziqi. In the Qing Dynasty system, the imperial power of the pro -politics was the highest dominance of the administration. The Military Aircraft Office was only responsible for the aim of the purpose of the military aircraft and questioned the responsibility of the military aircraft. In fact, it was questioning the administrative power of the imperial power. Therefore, Zaiyu will be promulgated in the form of “Zhu Xun” without the intermediate link and not allowing the word to directly issue a word. The purpose is to make a hammer, which clearly shows that the decision comes from the sacrament and declare that the imperial power cannot be questioned. On December 25th, the regent of the regent issued the ups and downs: the constitutional government edit and the investigation hall was revised to the preparation of the constitutional list, and the new cabinet official system was formulated (“The 36th of the” Guangxu Xuantong Two Dynasties “, p. 490). Try to make the cabinet truly sharing responsibilities and soothe the pressure on the imperial power and the royal family.

李文杰:朱批是朱批,上谕是上谕

In May 1911, the new cabinet official was promulgated and established a cabinet headed by Yizhen, commonly known as the “royal cabinet”. Among the new cabinet official system, there are special terms to talk about the signature of the State State Affairs. The minister signed with the minister. “In the form, the signature system of the State Minister of the Constitutional State of the monarch was imitated (see Figure 7). However, the signature does not mean that the cabinet enjoys corresponding administrative power, because the Cabinet’s official system stipulates that the Cabinet Prime Minister must be facing at any time, and the ministers of various ministries have to go to the Cabinet Prime Minister at any time, or please go to the right. At this time, the state -of -the -world handling measures were still viewed by the regent of the regent. Although the original military aircraft department was abolished, the cabinet assumed the auxiliary function of the original military aircraft. If the right to signed the Minister of State in the Cabinet of Responsibility is explained as the corresponding responsibility, then the liability cabinet at this time is undoubtedly responsible and has no right to be responsible, and the situation is embarrassing.

Figure 7 The first responsibility of the Cabinet Prime Minister and the Minister of the Associated Minister (the first thing the regent Wang Xizhang) (“The Ge Guangxu Xuantong Two Dynasties Upper File”, Volume 37, p. 92);

On October 10, the Wuchang Uprising broke out, and the royal cabinet then resigned. The Qing court ordered Yuan Shikai to organize a new cabinet, and the regent king retreated to Wang Mansion. After Yuan Shikai came to power, please stop each of the gates. In this way, the responsible cabinet party is truly responsible -the administrative strategy can be formulated, and at the same time, it also signed a full responsibility. Since then, the signature of the minister no longer means being a loyal to pass the monarch, but to indicate their responsibility of governance. This is the period of the Pavilion of Yuan Shikai until the Emperor’s abdication. The basic format adopted by the decree (see Figure 8).

Figure 8 The Second Responsibility Cabinet Prime Minister and the Deputy Secretary of the State Minister (“” “” The two dynasties of Guangxu Xuantong “, Volume 37, p. 332)

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