Two batteries are removed! Who is the “three good life” of large energy storage?
Source: 【Newspaper of China】
Text ｜ “China Science News” trainee reporter Tian Ruiying
Photo by Chen Yongzheng at the energy storage power station scene
In the past 10 years, more than 30 electrical chemical energy storage and power stations have occurred around the world. Most of the accident power stations have adopted ternary lithium batteries.
Not long ago, the Comprehensive Department of the National Energy Administration issued the “Twenty -five Key requirements of the Power Production Accident (2022 Edition) (Draft for Opinions)”, and proposed that the medium and large electrochemical energy storage power stations must not be selected from the ternary lithium batteries, sodium sulfur batteries, , It is not advisable to use the staircase to use power batteries.
Chen Yongzhang, deputy secretary -general of the Energy Storage Application Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the deputy secretary -general of the Energy Storage Application Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the China Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that security is the primary factor, “the scale of the scale of electrochemical energy storage Need the ‘Three Good Students’, and in the future, a special -scale application of energy storage -storage -specific batteries with ‘high safety, low cost and easy -to -recover’ characteristics will be obtained. “
Why is it prohibited?
In recent years, the South Korean energy storage power plant has occurred from fire. As the mainstream energy storage product of South Korea, the ternary lithium battery is the “number one killer” that triggered the accident.
Chen Yongzheng told the China Science News that most of the large and medium -sized chemical energy storage power stations abroad use lithium iron phosphate batteries and ternary lithium batteries, while domestic lithium iron phosphate batteries are basically used in China.
Regarding the application of my country ’s clear ban on the ternary lithium battery in this field, he explained that the heating temperature of the ternary lithium battery was about 200 ° C, and the internal chemical reactions of the battery at high temperature were more severe. The burning of gas may even cause degeneration in a short time.
Another “dividend” is sodium sulfur battery. On September 21, 2011, sodium sulfur batteries (Japanese NGK Company) in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan caused fire accidents. The fire burned for two weeks to extinguish. Since then, the development of sodium sulfur batteries has also fallen in a cliff.
Lu Yaxiang, an associate researcher at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, told the Journal of China that high -temperature sulfur sulfur batteries were announced by Ford in 1968. In 2003, Japan NGK company realized the commercialization of high -temperature sodium sulfur batteries.
However, sodium sulfur batteries can only run normally at about 300 ° C at high temperatures. Once the ceramic tube rupture short circuit, it will cause a severe heat -deducting reaction, which can instantly generate high temperature at 2000 ° C, and the safety hazards are large. Globally, only Japanese NGK is producing the battery, which lacks the industrial chain and large -scale effects.
It is worth noting that the policy also proposes that the mid -large electrochemical energy storage power stations should not use staircases to use power batteries. When using the staircase to use the power battery, consistent filtering should be performed and a security assessment is combined with traceability data.
It is worth noting that according to the forecast of Everbright Securities, in 2030, the recycling of ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries will form a market of 100 billion yuan. Among them, the three -yuan lithium battery recycling market space will reach 60 billion yuan under the average price; the stair use and recycling market space of lithium iron phosphate batteries is expected to reach more than 48 billion yuan.
Regarding the decision of not being used to use the battery, Chen Yongzheng believes that there are main safety hazards in retired power batteries. Due to the large number of power battery companies, the different technical routes and product specifications, the ladder is difficult to use the battery disassembly, evaluation and assembly, and mixed fish and dragons.
Xia Yonggao, chairman of Ningbo Weifu Technology Co., Ltd. and researcher at the Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, revealed to the China Science Journal that the core requirements of the secondary use of technologies are to ensure the quality and safety of the target products. Historical use, but in fact this data is difficult to really get.
He also pointed out that the retired battery itself has uncertainty and it is difficult to accurately evaluate the safety of the battery after a long time.
“Some companies use battery as low -speed vehicle power batteries, which also has certain safety hazards.” Xia Yonggao believes that the future use of batteries can be used in small energy storage fields that are relatively low in safety and life.
The possibility of market fluctuations is not great
With the disability of the ternary lithium battery in the medium and large electrochemical energy storage power stations, will my country’s lithium ion battery market usher in turbulence?
The “White Paper of the Development Index of China Lithium Electric Industry” pointed out that my country has become the world’s largest lithium battery consumer market for five consecutive years. In 2021, the global lithium -ion battery market reached 545 Gavaco, and the scale of the Chinese lithium -ion battery market was about 324 Gavacan, accounting for about 59.4%of the global market.
Data released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology showed that in the national lithium -ion battery production of 324 Giva in 2021, the output of consumption, power, and energy storage -type lithium batteries was 72 Gavaco, 220 Gavaco, and 32 Gavaco. The total output value of lithium batteries exceeds 600 billion yuan.
As far as the energy storage field is concerned, as of the end of 2021, the Chinese energy storage market has a cumulative installed power of 43.44 Gaval, ranking first in the world. Electrochemical energy storage installed power was 5117.1 MW, accounting for 11.8%. Among them, the power scale of lithium -ion battery energy storage technology accounts for 91.0%.
Further focus on power batteries, lithium iron phosphate battery has a stronger development momentum. According to statistics from the China Automotive Power Battery Industry Innovation Alliance, the total number of domestic power battery vehicles in 2021 has a total of 154.5 Gavaco, of which the volume of lithium iron phosphate batteries is 79.8 Gavaco, accounting for 51.7%, exceeding the ternary lithium battery.
Chen Yongzheng said that the development of ternary lithium batteries benefited from the support of subsidy policies. After the 2017 subsidy policy was introduced, the energy density requirements were introduced, and the three -yuan lithium battery with higher energy density became the first choice for auto companies.
However, in recent years, the disadvantages of the three -yuan lithium battery life and costs have gradually emerged, especially the occurrence of multiple safety accidents, which has attracted the market’s high attention to battery safety.
The energy density of lithium iron phosphate has increased in recent years. Chen Yongzheng believes that the increase in the proportion of lithium iron phosphate batteries is the result of market selection. “This is not a policy leading the market, but the policy reflects the trend of market development.”
Although the lithium iron phosphate battery has higher safety, some fire accidents have also occurred in recent years. On April 16, 2021, the energy storage power station in Fengtai District, Beijing was exploded. The accident caused two firefighters to sacrifice, and the direct fire property loss was 16.608 million yuan. Half a year later, the Beijing Municipal Emergency Administration officially announced the results of the investigation. The direct cause of the fire was a short -circuit failure in the lithium iron phosphate battery.
Therefore, Chen Yongzheng emphasized that even lithium iron phosphate batteries still need to have new technical breakthroughs in high safety, low cost and easy recycling.
Xia Yonggao believes that the disable the ternary lithium battery will affect the capital market of the entire lithium ion battery in this field will be unlikely. In his opinion, this policy was originally within the industry’s consensus and expectations.
Regarding the development of sulfur batteries in my country, Lu Yaxiang said that high -temperature sulfur sulfur batteries have not yet been applied in my country. The disability in the field of medium and large electrochemical energy storage power stations may slow down its research.
Which batteries will usher in opportunities?
After the above batteries are “removed”, which batteries are expected to emerge in the field of large -scale electrochemical energy storage?
After interviewing a number of experts, the reporter found that sodium ion batteries, liquid flow batteries, and energy storage lithium batteries may stand out.
Lu Yaxiang told reporters that organic sodium ion batteries, solid sodium ion batteries and water system sodium ion batteries are suitable for medium and large electrochemical energy storage power stations.
She explained that the sodium ion batteries are rich in sodium resources, low cost, and no discharge characteristics, and better safety performance. Due to the low requirements for battery energy density for medium and large -scale electrochemical storage stations, there is also application space for sodium ion batteries with low energy density. “In addition, the fast charging performance and wide temperature adaptability of sodium ion batteries are also found.”
In June 2021, the first domestic high -tech enterprise in China, which focuses on the research and development and production of sodium ion batteries in the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, released the world’s first 1 MWh (MWH) sodium ion battery energy storage system Essence Lu Yaxiang is a member of this “battery national team”. She told reporters that the sodium ion battery developed by the team does not need to operate under high temperature conditions. The working principle is similar to that of the battery component to lithium ion batteries, which can be called room temperature sodium ion battery. The positive electrode material of the battery can be used for transition metal oxides, polycotic ions, and Prussian blue compounds. The negative electrode materials are currently using non -fixed carbon, and sodium ions are stored in positive and negative electrode materials.
流 Battery is a typical representative of the current liquid flow battery. The liquid flow battery energy storage technology is to achieve mutual conversion of electrical and chemical energy through positive and negative electrolyte active substances that occur. Features.
In addition, Lu Yaxiang also mentioned the water -based alkaline metal/alkaline earth metal ion battery. She pointed out that water is a natural flame retardant. Water -based batteries are not prone to combustion or explosion under extreme conditions or battery heat out of control. It meets the requirements of security storage systems and has the characteristics of green environmental protection.
Back to the lithium ion battery, Chen Yongzheng believes that the special battery -based battery -based high -safe and large -capacity energy storage battery based on lithium iron phosphate materials will be the application trend of domestic and foreign chemical chemical energy storage technology.
After many years of exploration, Chen Yongzheng’s team developed a new type of lithium slurry battery suitable for large -capacity energy storage. All or part of the electrodes consisting of lithium -storage active substances, conductive agents and electrolytes with a slurry state, and using composite albums, super thick, super thick The electrode and semi -open battery structure have completely changed the dangerous product attributes of lithium ion batteries.
In 2019, the research of new lithium slurry storage batteries was selected as one of the national transformation technical directions, and it is currently being promoted.
“The large -capacity or large -power energy storage battery is the development direction of industrial technology. In the future, comprehensive technical breakthroughs still need to be needed.” Chen Yongzheng said.
“China Science News” (2022-08-01 4th edition of science and technology innovation)
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This article comes from the [China Science News], which only represents the author’s point of view. The national party media information public platform provides information release communication services.
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