Another wave of engines in the engine, high -definition map, China -British control

Another wave of engines in the engine, high -definition map, China -British control

Body group

Modern car engines are composed of the body, cylinder head, cylinder cap cover, cylinder pad, spindle bearing cover, and oil bottom shell. The body group is the bracket of the engine. It is the assembly substrate of the crank connecting mechanism, the gas distribution mechanism and the main components of the engine systems of the engine. The cylinder head is used to close the top of the cylinder and form a combustion chamber with the piston top and the cylinder wall.

Body component

Cylinder

The cylinder head is used to close the cylinder and form a combustion room. The cylinder head casts water covers, water pores, water pores, spark plug holes, bolt holes, combustion rooms, etc.

cylinder block

The cylinder is the main body of the engine. It connects each cylinder and crankshaft box into one. It is a supporting skeleton that installs the piston, crankshaft, and other parts and accessories.

Cylinder pad

The cylinder cushion is between the cylinder head and the cylinder body. Its function is to fill the micro -pores between the cylinder body and the cylinder head, ensure good sealing at the binding surface, and then ensure the sealing of the combustion chamber, prevent the cylinder leakage and water cover of the cylinder leakage and water cover. water leakage.

Piston rod component

The piston link is the engine of the engine. It passes the pressure of the combustion gas to the crankshaft, turning the crankshaft to rotate and output power. The piston rod group is mainly composed of Pistons, Pistons, Pistons and connecting rods.

piston

The main function of the piston is to withstand the pressure of combustion gas, and this force is passed on to the connecting rod through the piston sales to promote the crankshaft rotation. In addition, the piston top and the cylinder head and the cylinder wall together form the combustion chamber. The piston is the worst part of the engine conditions in the engine.

link

The connecting rod group includes parts such as connecting rod body, connecting rod cap, connecting rod bolts, and connecting rod bearings. The function of the connecting rod group is to transmit the piston to the crankshaft and transform the piston movement movement into the rotation movement of the crankshaft. The connecting head is connected to the piston sales, and the piston moves with the piston; the connecting head is connected to the crank sales, and the same crankshaft is carried out together.

The crankshaft mission of the crankshaft flying wheels includes crankshafts, flywheels, torsional shock absorbers, and balanced shafts. The role of the crankshaft flywheel group is to transform the piston movement into the rotation movement of the crankshaft to output torque for the driving of the car and the other institutions that need power. At the same time, it also stores energy to overcome the resistance of non -work strokes to make the engine run stable.

Crankshaft flywheel

Function of crankshaft

The function of the crankshaft is to transform the gas from the piston and connecting rod into a torque to drive the car’s transmission system and the engine gas distribution mechanism and other auxiliary devices. The crankshaft work under the common action of periodic changes in gas, inertia, and its torque, and bend the load of bending and reversing.

Crankshaft

Crankshaft

The installation location of the crankshaft

Nigal axis work principle

We all know that the piston in the cylinder is a straight line motion up and down, but how to output the rotating power of the driving wheels, how can it transform the linear movement into a rotation movement? In fact, this has a lot to do with the structure of the crankshaft. The rod shaft of the crankshaft is not on the same line as the main axis, but is arranged by opposition.

The principle of this movement is actually very similar to us. The two feet are equivalent to two adjacent pistons. The pedals are equivalent to the connecting rod axis. When the left foot is kicked down with force (the piston does the exercise or inhale down), the right foot will be raised (another piston compressor or exhausts the upward movement). In this way, the linear movement is transformed into a rotation movement.

Air Supply

The gas distribution mechanism mainly includes the timing gear system, camshaft, valve transmission component (valve, push rod, rocker arm, etc.). The main role is to open and close the in -depth valve in time according to the engine work of the engine. In order to make fresh mixed gases fill the cylinder in time, the exhaust gas must be discharged from the cylinder in time.

Drama diagram of the gas distribution mechanism

Qi -distribution mechanism composition

Gas distribution mechanism type

According to the position of the camshaft, it can be divided into a bottom camshaft and a top camshaft. The camshaxial formula is arranged at the bottom of the cylinder; the top camshaft formation refers to the tail of the camshaft at the top of the cylinder. Overhead Valve refers to the camshaft of the top valve. Overhead Camshaft refers to the top camshaft. If there is only one camshaft on the top of the cylinder, it is responsible for entering and turning the valve at the same time, called Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC).

Top valve engine

If there are two camshafts on the top of the valve and the open valve, they are called double -top camshaft (DOHC). Under Dohc, there are two camshafts. Very suitable for high -speed cars.

Double -top camshaft

OHV and SOHC

Path

The so -called valve is positive, and it can be simply understood as the moment when the valve is turned on and closed. In theoretically, when the piston is moved from the top point to the lower point, the valve is opened and the exhaust valve is closed; during the exhaust itinerary, when the piston is moved from the bottom stop point to the upper terminal, the intonation valve, Turn off and open the valve.

Display diagram of gas distribution

The purpose of the timing is actually in the actual engine work to increase the amount of air intake in the cylinder. The intake valve needs to be turned on and delayed in advance. It also needs to be turned on and delayed in advance, so as to ensure the effective operation of the engine.

Camshaft

The camshaft is mainly responsible for the opening and closure of the vessel. The camshaft is continuously rotated under the driving of the crankshaft, and the cam is constantly pressing the valve, thereby achieving the function of controlling the valve and the ventilation valve.

Camshaft structure

Camshaft term

Valve

The role of the valve is to be responsible for entering fuel into the engine and exhausting exhaust gas.

Valve composition

Valve term

Valve spring

The function of the valve spring is to rely on the tension of its spring to quickly return to the closure position, and prevent the valve from gap due to inertial power during the engine movement of the valve. To prevent the valve from being sealed due to beating during vibration.

Typical valve spring and related components

Trap

The valve coil is the contact surface between the valve and the cylinder head. The valve and valve seats are used in the sealed room seal to adjust and exhaust.

Valve gap

In the cold state, when the valve is closed, the gap between the valve and the transmission part is called the valve gap. Figure (a) indicates that the valve gap is adjusted by screws, and the figure (b) indicates that the valve clearance is adjusted by the pad.

Liquid

The hydraulic rod is mainly composed of the tingling body, plunger, ball head plunger (push rod branch), one -way valve, one -way valve spring, and return spring. Using the unique structural design inside the hydraulic rod can automatically adjust the transmission gap, transmit changes in cam lifting, and open and close the valve on time.

The working principle is that when the cam is closed during the lift phase, the cam compressed plunger, the one -way valve is closed, and the oil in the high pressure cavity leaks a small amount from the gap between the rod body and the plunger. It can be seen as a rigid body that is not compressed. Under the support of the “rigid”, open and exhaust the valve. During the camback range, the stress of the plunger was lifted, and the plunger recovered in the action of the return spring, and the valve was automatically closed under the action of the valve spring to complete a working cycle to achieve the purpose of automatically adjusting the valve gap.

Rocker

The rocker arm is a leveraged mechanism for the top pressure valve, which is used to drive the valve to open and close.

Rocker shaft

Some engines use the rocker shaft to support the rocker arm.

Variable valve timing and variable valve lifts

The regular timing and variable valve lifts can be adjusted according to the engine speed and working conditions, so that the engine can obtain ideal advancement and exhaust efficiency at high and low speeds.

Variable valve positive time

Using hydraulic control camshaft internal rotor inside the internal gear can achieve an angle within or delay within a certain range.

Variable valve lift

The variable valve lift system mainly uses the low -angle cam and high -angle cams on the camshaft to achieve the variable range of the valve.

Toyota Smart Various Virgin Time System

Toyota’s variable valve timing system has been widely used. The main principle is to install a set of liquid force mechanisms on the camshaft. Through the control of the ECU, the valve opening and closing time are adjusted within a certain angle, or Early or delayed or remain unchanged.

The external rotor of the timing gear of the camshaft is connected to the timing chain (belt), and the inner rotor is connected to the camshaft. The external rotor can indirectly drive the inner rotor through the oil, so as to achieve an angle within or delay within a certain range.

Honda Intelligent Variable Valley Positive Time and Lift Electronic Control

Honda’s VTEC variable valve lift system can be seen as the original basis and the third camshaft. Through the separation and binding of the three rockers to achieve the switching of the camshaft at high and low angle, thereby changing the rising range of the valve.

Honda VTEC system

When the engine is at a low load, the three rocked arms are in a separate state, and the rockers on both sides of the low -angle cam to control the open and closing of the valve, and the valve lifts are small; when the engine is at a high load, the three rocker arm combines into one, which is high from the height. The angle cam drives the middle rocker, and the valve lifts are large.

Audi Valley Lift System

Audi’s AVS variable valve lift system mainly uses two sets of cams on the camshaft to achieve the valve lifts. The principle is very similar to Honda’s VTEC, but the AVS system is installed on the camshaft by the AVS system. The spiral groove sleeve is used to move the left and right movement of the camshaft, and then switch the height cam on the camshaft. Under the action of the electromagnetic drive, the camsy axis can be moved to the left or right to the right by the spiral groove, thereby realizing the switch between different cams.

When the engine is at a high load, the electromagnetic drive moves the cam to the right and switch to the high -angle cam to increase the raising of the valve.

AVS working principle (high load)

When the engine is at a low load, the electromagnetic drive moves the camsy axial to the left and switch to the low -angle cam to reduce the rising range of the valve.

AVS working principle (low load)

Cylinder

cylinder block

Cylinder pad

Piston rod component

piston

link

The installation location of the crankshaft

Nigal axis work principle

Trap

Valve gap

Liquid

Rocker

Rocker shaft

Variable valve positive time

Variable valve lift

Toyota Smart Various Virgin Time System

Audi Valley Lift System

Product Recommendation: auto engine assembly

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